tortora outline chapter 16 for power point (11th ed.)

tortora outline chapter 16 for power point (11th ed.) -...

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Unformatted text preview: 16-1Chapter 16SENSORY, MOTOR, AND INTEGRATIVE SYSTEMSI. INTRODUCTIONA. The components of the brain interact to receive sensory input, integrate andstore the information, and transmit motor responses.B. To accomplish the primary functions of the nervous system there are neural pathways to transmit impulses from receptors to the circuitry of the brain, which manipulates the circuitry to form directives that are transmitted via neural pathways to effectors as a response. II. SENSATIONA. Sensationis a conscious or unconscious awareness of external or internal stimuli. Perception is the conscious awareness and interpretation of sensations.B. Sensory receptors transmit four kinds of information: stimulus modality, location, intensity, and duration.1.Modalityrefers to the type of stimulus or sensation it produces (vision, taste, etc.).2.Location is also indicated by which nerve fibers are firing. Sensory projectionis the ability of the brain to identify the site of stimulation.3.Intensitycan be encoded by firing frequencies of nerve fibers, recruitment of more fibers, and stimulation of fibers that vary in their thresholds.4.Duration is encoded in the way nerve fibers change their firing frequencies over time. Phasic receptorstend to generate a burst of action potentials and then quickly adapt and stop transmitting impulses. Tonic receptorsadapt slowly and continue to transmit impulses.16-2C. Components of Sensation1. For a sensation to arise, four events must occur.2. These are stimulation, transduction, conduction, and translation.a. A stimulus, or change in the environment, capable of initiating a nerve impulse by the nervous system must be present.b. A sensory receptoror sense organmust pick up the stimulus and transduce (convert) it to a nerve impulse by way of a generator potential.c. The impulse(s) must be conductedalong a neural pathway from the receptor or sense organ to the brain.d. A region of the brain or spinal cord must translatethe impulse into a sensation.D. Sensory Receptors1. Classification of Sensory Receptorsa. On a microscopic level, sensory receptors are free nerve endings, encapsulated nerve endings at the dendrites of first-order sensory neurons, or separate cells that synapse with first order sensory neurons.1) When stimulated the dendrites of free nerve endings, encapsulate nerve endings, and the receptive part of olfactory receptors produce generator potentials.2) The specialized cells that act as receptors for the special senses of vision, hearing, equilibrium, and taste produce receptor potentialsin response to stimuli.3) Generator and receptor potentials are graded, local potentials; generator potentials trigger action potentials, whereas receptor potentials doe not.16-3b. Senses are classified as to whether they are general or special....
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tortora outline chapter 16 for power point (11th ed.) -...

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