Grading Powerpoint - Clarification Inspection Vs Grading...

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Unformatted text preview: Clarification/ Inspection Vs. Grading USDA Grading • Purpose –Sort Heterogeneous Population into Homogenous Groups –Facilitate Marketing of Livestock & Meat on Sight Unseen Basis Classification of Carcasses Classification Carcasses classification based on: Maturity and Sex Condition. Sex Bovine Veal -- birth to 10 wks. Calf -- 2 1/2 mon. to 8 mon. Beef -- Steer, Heifer, Cow, Bullock, Bull Ovine Lamb -- Under 1 yr. Yearling Mutton -- 1-2 yrs. Mutton -- > 2 yrs. Porcine Pork -- Barrow, Gilt, Sow, Boar, Stag Pork -- Beef Carcass Grading USDA Quality and Yield Grades Grades • 90% of the cattle slaughtered in the US 90% receive a USDA grade. receive • Dual grading system (quality and yield) • USDA grading of beef is optional • Both quality grades and yield grades Both are assigned to carcasses by USDA Graders who are independent of the packing plants. packing USDA Quality Grade • What is meant by quality grade: – term used to describe the characteristics of the lean that indicate palatability – describes factors that consumers associate with tenderness, juiciness, flavor, and overall palatability Quality Grade Factors • Maturity: – subjective observation of ossification of the vertebral columns, color of lean, and texture of lean • Marbling – Subjective evaluation of the amount of intramuscular fat dispersed within the ribeye Beef Quality Grades-Maturity • Maturity of a carcass is determined by subjective evaluation of the ossification (turning to bone) of the vertebral column from the sacral vertebra to the thoracic vertebra. • Particular attention is paid to the cartiligneous tips, or buttons, found on the dorsal aspect of each vertebral spinous process. Spinous Spinous process of the Thoracic vertebra “Buttons” Thoracic vertebra vertebra Beef Quality Grades- Lean Maturity Young A00 B00 Intermediate C00 D00 Mature E00 Various Maturity of Beef Cattle A-Maturity A-Maturity C-Maturity D-Maturity USDA Quality-Marbling • Marbling, or intramuscular fat flecks within the exposed ribeye area • Usually the major factor determining quality grade Flecks of fat within the encircled area Choice Prime Prime Select Select Overall USDA Quality Grade Modest Marbling A-Maturity Average Choice USDA Yield Grade • What is meant by USDA Yield Grade: – Yield grades were developed to estimate the “Percent Boneless Closely Trimmed Rib, Loin, Chuck, and Round.” • This equation uses the hot carcass weight, ribeye area, back fat thickness, and percentage of Kidney, Pelvic, and Heart Fat (KPH). USDA Yield Grades • Predicting Carcass Cutability – Hot Carcass Weight (lbs) – Adjusted Fat Thickness (in.) – Ribeye Area (sq. in.) – % Kidney Pelvic and Heart Fat Beef Carcass Anatomy Round Loin 12th and 13th Rib 13 Rib Chuck USDA Yield Grades Percent Kidney, Pelvic, and Heart Fat (KPH) Pelvic Fat Kidney Fat Heart Fat 12th Rib Back Fat Thickness ¾ the length of the ribeye 12th Rib Ribeye Area Each Square is a tenth of an inch Pork Grading • USDA Pork Carcass Grading Exists – Not Used in Industry • Population too homogenous Pork Grading • Carcass Composition – Red Meat Yield – % Lean/ Muscle – Yield Grade – Cutability Fat-O-Meater Reflectance Profile Fat Depth Loin Depth Rib n a c l f e R t h g i L Tissue Depth Pork Grading • Lean Quality – Prediction of eating quality (palatability) – Tenderness – Juiciness – Flavor PSE RFN DFD Pork Grading • Pork harvested at young enough chronological ageGenerally Quality Not that big an issue • Thus pork marketing primarily driven by WEIGHT and CARCASS COMPOSITION PSE RFN DFD Hind Foot Ham Belly (Bacon) Loin Spareribs Picnic Shoulder Front Foot Boston Butt Jowl 10th/11th Rib Interface Lamb Yield Grading • Predicts % CloselyTrimmed % leg, loin, rack and shoulder • Fat thickness assessed at the ½ measurement opposite the ribeye of the 12th/13th rib interface Lamb Carcass Yield Grading Lamb Quality Grading • Predicts potential palatability Possible Grades are: Prime Choice Good Utility Cull Lamb Quality Grading • 3 Parameters – Maturity – Flank Streaking – Conformation Lamb Quality GradingMaturity • Condition of the trotter (front legs) – Spool joint or break joint – Break joint- youthful epiphyseal plates (lamb) – Spool joint- mature epiphyseal plates (mutton) Lamb Quality Grading- Flank Streaking • Flank Streaking Scores Identical to Beef Marbling Scores (P. Devoid to Abundant) • Traces Degree Flank Streaking= U. S. Choice • Small Degree Flank Streaking= U. S. Prime Lamb Quality GradingConformation • Conformation- The proportion of carcass width to length • Generally, shorter and thicker= higher conforming Lamb Quality GradingConformation Carcass Grades Grades Beef Quality Prime Choice Select Standard Commercial Utility Cutter Canner 1 2 3 4 5 Lamb Yield Quality Yield Prime Choice Good Utility 1 2 3 4 5 Pork USDA 1 2 3 4 Certification • Using the USDA grading standards and other specifications to have third party certification • Currently 64 different schedules • Purpose – Add value – Develop brand identity – Improve endpoint consistency Certified Angus Beef • • • • • Program Name – Certified Angus Beef Live Animal Requirements – 51% Black Hair Coat Carcass Requirements – No dairy conformation – Steers and Heifers – No dark cutters – No internal hemorrhaging – Maximum hump height < 2” Quality – A maturity – Mt 00 or higher – Medium to fine textured marbling Yield – Ribeye area 10 to 16 in2 – Carcass weight < 1000 – Fat thickness < 1” Slightly Abundant 00 Moderate 00 Modest 00 Small 50 Small 00 Slight 50 Slight 00 Breed Specific Source Verification • Angus Source • Source verified Poultry USDA Grading Exists- Currently Not Needed Next ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/20/2011 for the course ANS 2002 taught by Professor Staff during the Spring '08 term at University of Florida.

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Grading Powerpoint - Clarification Inspection Vs Grading...

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