psychreviewsheet1-4 - Psych Review Sheet Ch. 1-4...

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Psych Review Sheet Ch. 1-4 Psychodynamic- (Sigmund Freud)-Behavior is explained in terms of inherited instincts, biological drive, and attempts to resolve conflicts-UNCONSCIOUS drive Behavioral- (John Watson, Skinner)-Primarily concerned with observable behavior that can be objectively recorded. See what goes in and out but not middle, external environmental influence, rewards and punishment. Humanistic- (Carl Rogers, Maslow)-emphasizes an individual’s inherent capacity for making rational choices and developing to maximum potential. Self- actualization, free will. Cognitive- Human thought and the process of knowing and thinking. Behavior occurs because people think, problem solvers, information processors, decision making. Biological- focuses on the functioning of the genes, brain, nervous system and endocrine system. Behavior is explained in terms of underlying physical structures and biochemical processes. Evolutionary- (Charles Darwin)-importance of behavioral and mental adaptiveness, natural selection Sociocultural- cross-cultural differences in the causes and consequences of behavior Extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence- the more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more persuasive the evidence for this claim must be before we should accept it Falsifiability- claims must be capable of being disproved Occam’s Razor- if two hypotheses explain a phenomenon equally well, we should generally select the simpler one Replicability- a finding must be capable of being duplicated by independent researchers following the same “recipe” Ruling out rival hypotheses- findings consistent with several hypotheses require additional research to eliminate these hypotheses Correlation vs. Causation- the fact that two things are associated with each other doesn’t mean that one causes the other Overuse of ad hoc immunizing hypotheses- escape hatch or loophole that defenders of a theory use to protect their theory from falsification Lack of self-correction- incorrect claims never go away because their proponents cling to them despite contrary evidence Exaggerated claims- extraordinary claims require extraordinary evidence Overreliance on anecdotes- don’t tell us about cause and effect, don’t tell us about how representative the cases are, difficult to verify Evasion of peer review- bypass the peer review process, preferring instead to rely on anecdotes or conduct informal research that’s never submitted to scientific journals Absence of connectivity- neglect previous research and purport to create grand new ideas out of whole cloth
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Psychobabble- claims that are accompanied by psychological or neurological language that sounds highly scientific naturalistic observation- watching behavior in real-world settings case studies- research design that examines one person or a small number of people in depth, often over an extended period of time correlational designs- psychologists examine the extent to which two variables are associated (related to each other)
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psychreviewsheet1-4 - Psych Review Sheet Ch. 1-4...

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