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Unformatted text preview: De p e artm fL nt o ang u ul dC ture ge a f u o ang g n e L 02 7 i 3 h N c Hom TM a e T E age duc ati Ar on, ts a n Prof MM Nieman Dr WM Liebenberg University of South Africa Pretoria © 2019 University of South Africa All rights reserved Printed and published by the University of South Africa Muckleneuk, Pretoria TMN3702/501/2020 70818835 Shutterstock.com images used InDesign PR_Tour_Style CONTENTS Page Preface vii Learning unit 1: From outcomes-based education to the national curriculum statement grades R-12 1 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 Introduction Norms and standards An Outcomes-Based Approach to Education (OBE) Curriculum 2005 The curriculum and assessment policy statement (caps) 2011 Conclusion 1 2 3 4 5 10 Learning unit 2: Teaching a home language in a multicultural context 11 2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 Introduction Home language, first and second additional languages Multilingualism Switching and mixing codes Translanguaging Language teaching ln a multicultural context Culture and language teaching Languages with high and low status in South Afrlca Overview of the learning unit Conclusion 13 13 14 15 16 19 20 23 26 27 Learning unit 3: Listening and speaking instruction 28 3 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 1 Introduction What the CAPS says about listening and speaking Unpacking the listening skill Why is listening instruction necessary? How to teach listening Using stories during listening instruction Teaching interactive listening Teaching learners to listen and carry out instructions Getting and keeping learners’ attention when listening Teaching activities designed to develop learners’ listening skills Integrating listening with other skills Assessing listening Teaching speaking Overview of the learning unit Conclusion 28 29 31 35 36 42 43 44 45 47 50 51 53 63 64 ........... iii TM N3702 /1 CO N T EN T S Learning unit 4: Teaching reading and viewing 4 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5 4.6 4.7 4.8 Introduction What the CAPS says about reading and viewing Unpacking the reading and viewing skill Why is reading and viewing instruction important? How to teach reading Additional learning experiences Overview of the learning unit Conclusion Learning unit 5: Writing instruction 5 5.1 5.2 5.3 5.4 5.5 5.6 5.7 5.8 5.9 Introduction What the CAPS says about writing and presenting Key aspects of writing instruction Writing as a process How to guide learners through the writing process Teaching different types of writing exercises Assessing writing Overview of the learning unit Conclusion Learning unit 6: Teaching language structures and conventions 6 6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4 6.5 6.6 6.7 6.8 6.9 6.10 6.11 6.12 Introduction What the CAPS says about the teaching of language structures and conventions Guidelines for teaching language structures and conventions The traditional approach versus the progressive approach The whole-language approach Learning vocabulary Teaching spelling Teaching dictionary use Teaching idioms and proverbs Teaching punctuation Overview of the learning unit Conclusion Learning unit 7: Lesson planning, presentation and assessment 7 7.1 7.2 7.3 7.4 7.5 7.6 7.7 Introduction What the CAPS says about planning The nature of planning and preparation Long-term planning: The Annual Teaching Plan (ATP) Short-term planning Lesson planning and preparation Planning for and conducting assessment ........... iv 65 65 66 68 73 74 115 115 115 116 117 118 119 128 129 137 152 154 155 156 156 157 157 163 164 165 168 172 174 176 177 178 179 179 180 180 182 186 192 197 Co nte nt s 7.8 7.9 7.10 7.11 At what levels should learners be assessed? Assessing different language skills Overview of the learning unit Conclusion 205 211 217 217 REFERENCES 219 ........... v TM N3702 /1 T E ACH I N G O F H O M E L AN G UAG E ........... vi TEACHING OF HOME LANGUAGE Preface i. Getting started Welcome to Teaching of Home Language (TMN3702), a module that is offered by Unisa’s Department of Language Education, Arts and Culture. We would like to take this opportunity to wish you success in your academic year. Your study material for this module includes • • • • • this study guide Tutorial Letter 101 any other tutorial letters you may receive throughout the year any additional information provided on your e-tutor site on myUnisa any additional electronic communication you may receive, such as Announcements from your lecturer or e-tutor Tutorial Letter 101 will be part of your study pack or will be posted to you, but you can also access it on myUnisa. You can do this by clicking on Official Study Material in the menu on the left. Tutorial Letter 101 is just one of the tutorial letters you will be receiving during the year. However, it is extremely important that you read this tutorial letter carefully. You will also receive Tutorial Letter 201 during the year, after the respective due dates for submission of each assignment. Tutorial Letter 201 is closely linked to Tutorial Letter 101 and will provide you with feedback on the answers to the assignments. In this introductory section, we will give you an overview of and some general information about this module. We will also tell you more about how you can study for this module, how to use myUnisa and about the assessment process for the module. Your study guide and tutorial letters contain everything you need to complete this module. However, you may benefit from also using the module website on myUnisa. By using this site, you can • submit assignments (It is advisable that you submit your assignments online, as this will ensure that you receive prompt feedback and comments.) • access your official study material • access the Unisa Library functions • “chat” to your lecturer or e-tutor and fellow students and participate in online discussion forums • access a variety of learning resources ........... vii TM N3702 /1 T E ACH I N G O F H O M E L AN G UAG E Check the site regularly for updates, posted announcements and additional resources uploaded throughout the year.. Please note that there are two sites you should use in studying this module. The first is the module site, where you will find the learning units and where you can communicate with your lecturer. In your list of modules, this usually has a name in the following format: module code-year-semester (e.g. TMN-19-S1) The second site is your e-tutor site, where you can communicate with your e-tutor and fellow students. This site has the same name as the module site, but with “-1E” or “-2E” added at the end, depending on the semester or year, for example TMN-19-S1-1E Your e-tutor is there to support your learning and you can post any questions to him or her in the site’s Discussion Forum, under the appropriate topic for general questions. In another forum, you will be able to communicate with your fellow students. On the e-tutor site, you should also respond to discussion questions that are given in the learning units. Your e-tutor may provide you with the opportunity to engage in additional discussions or to do specific online tasks or activities; please participate in these fully, as they will greatly assist you in your learning. Both the lecturer and e-tutor may also send you announcements from time to time. ii. Contact details and student support services Our contact details, as well as those of the academic department, are provided in Tutorial Letter 101. Should you need to contact the university about matters not related to the contents of this module, consult the publication entitled Study @ Unisa, which you received with your study material. This brochure contains information on how to contact the university (e.g. to whom you can write with different queries; important telephone and fax numbers; addresses and details of the opening and closing times of particular facilities). You can also make use of the following contact routes: ........... viii Unisa website or E-mail (general enquiries) [email protected] Queries related to applications and registrations [email protected] Assignment enquiries [email protected] Examination enquiries [email protected] Te a ch i n g o f h o m e l a n g u a g e Study material enquiries [email protected] Student account enquiries [email protected] Assistance with myUnisa [email protected] Assistance with myLife e-mail accounts [email protected] SMS (South Africa only) 32695 (You will receive an automated-response SMS with the various SMS options.) General fax number 012 429 4150 For information about the various student support systems and services available at Unisa (e.g. student counselling, tutorial classes, language support), you may also consult the Study @ Unisa brochure. Note the following support systems that you could use: • Fellow students It is always a good idea to have contact with fellow students. You can do this using the Discussions/Discussion Forums option on myUnisa. You can also use this option to find out whether there are students in your area who would like to form a study group. • Library Study @ Unisa lists all the services offered by the Unisa Library. To log in to the library website and access the library‘s online resources and services, you will be required to provide your login details (i.e. your student number and your myUnisa password). This will enable you to • request library material • view and renew your library material • use the library’s e-resources • Unisa’s Directorate for Counselling and Career Development (DCCD) The DCCD supports prospective and registered students before, during and after their Unisa studies. There are resources on their website ( . ac.za/sites/corporate/default/About/Service-departments/Counselling-andCareer-Development), as well as printed booklets available to assist you with • • • • • career advice and how to develop your employability skills study skills academic literacy (reading, writing and quantitative skills) assignment submission examination preparation The DCCD can also assist you with improving your personal wellness: in this regard, see their website at Personal-development ........... ix TM N3702 /1 T E ACH I N G O F H O M E L AN G UAG E • Student Health and Wellness Your physical health is an important factor in your learning success. Obtaining an educational qualification is challenging and may be stressful at times. Therefore, it is vital that you try to maintain a healthy lifestyle to ensure that you cope physically with the demands of your studies. If you suspect that you may be suffering from a chronic health condition – or you know that you suffer from such a condition but are unsure about the medical options and treatments available – you could approach Unisa for further information and support. See Unisa’s Student Health and Wellness website, which you can access from Unisa’s main website: click on About, Service Departments, Student Affairs and then on Student Health and Wellness. Here you will find details of Unisa’s health and wellness clinics and some health and wellness resources. Note that if you do have a health-related condition, such as HIV/AIDS, or you have a close family member with this or another chronic health condition, you need to take cognisance of this in planning your studies. It would be unwise to cram tasks, as this creates enormous stress, which negatively affects your performance as a student, as well as your health. Planning your studies is essential so that you work consistently and make steady progress. It is a good idea to know your health status (HIV/AIDS, blood pressure, diabetes, cholesterol, etc). Medical tests can identify if you have a specific health condition; thereafter, with the necessary medical and supportive interventions, you can prolong and improve the quality of your life and your chances of success in your studies. If you would like to obtain basic information about the prevention of, testing for and treatment of HIV/AIDS, you could also consult the following web links: • • (click on Living with HIV/Aids) You could also approach the DCCD about counselling in this regard. • The Advocacy and Resource Centre for Students with Disabilities (ARCSWiD) You will find more information about this centre on their web page at Student-Affairs/ARCSWiD. You can also contact the centre at 012 441 5470/1. iii. Purpose of and outcomes for this module The purpose of this module is to equip you with the knowledge, skills and values to teach Home Language in the Intermediate Phase (Grades 4-6) of the General Education and Training Band. All four language skills, namely speaking, listening, reading and writing – as well as language structures and conventions – will be dealt with in this Teaching of Home Language module. ........... x Te a ch i n g o f h o m e l a n g u a g e Home language teaching and learning in South Africa will enhance the level of multilingualism in the country. The outcomes and assessment criteria for the module are as follows: Specific outcome 1: Understand home language acquisition theories, as well as appropriate pedagogical approaches. Assessment criteria: • • • • Outline home language acquisition theories. Take different teaching and learning contexts into consideration. Compare and evaluate different language teaching approaches. Describe the role of sociocultural influences in home language acquisition. Specific outcome 2: Identify and implement a variety of roles that are essential in learners’ acquisition of home language listening and speaking skills. Assessment criteria: • Outline an understanding of listening and speaking as core skills in home language learning. • Define various listening and speaking skills to enable learners to recognise values and attitudes embedded in oral presentations. • Discuss the value of listening and speaking with understanding. • Illustrate knowledge of effective listening and speaking to enable learners to collect and synthesise information, to construct knowledge, to solve problems and to express ideas and opinions. Specific outcome 3: Classify different reading strategies and teach different literature genres and critical language awareness for learners to become competent readers. Assessment criteria: • Identify suitable reading strategies. • Interpret the chosen reading strategies. • Accentuate the value of reading with understanding for critical and creative thinking. • Distinguish different literature genres for reading purposes. • Select various intervention strategies and methods for learners who have reading problems. Specific outcome 4: Develop learners’ writing proficiency skills through planning, drafting and refining their writing. Assessment criteria: • Explore different writing skills. • Explain ways in which writing is planned, drafted and refined. ........... xi TM N3702 /1 T E ACH I N G O F H O M E L AN G UAG E • Develop learners’ ability to evaluate different texts critically through shared language. • Identify a variety of texts to extend learners’ use of vocabulary and home language structures. Specific outcome 5: Teach home language structures and use in an integrated way. Assessment criteria: • Integrate home language structures and use in a planned way. • Explain language rules, such as punctuation and grammar. • Facilitate knowledge of grammar at word and sentence levels. The next section will give you a better idea about how the content of the module is structured and how the various ideas expressed in the learning outcomes are related. iv. How the content of this module is organised The first two learning units in this study guide deal with general issues related to language teaching. First, we will give you an overview of the recent history of the South African curriculum: you will see how a policy of outcomesbased education in the country has developed into the current policy, namely the National Curriculum Statement Grades R-12. We will then look briefly at first language acquisition theories, the main components of language, teaching a home language in a multicultural context and general principles of language teaching, before focusing on your role as language teacher. In learning units 3 to 6, we will explore the teaching of specific skills: listening and speaking; reading and viewing; writing and presenting; and the use of language structures and conventions. In the final unit, you will learn more about planning a language teaching programme and assessing learners. Consult the table of contents to see the titles and subsections of each of the learning units. Now that you have a better idea of how the module is structured, let’s look at what your studies will involve. v. Learning resources Your main learning resources for this module will be your study guide, supported by the tutorial letters. vi. Module-specific study plan Distance learning is not easy and you should not underestimate the time and effort involved. Once you have received your study material, it is important ........... xii Te a ch i n g o f h o m e l a n g u a g e to plan how you will approach and complete this module. Consult Study @ Unisa for suggestions about general time management and planning skills. This is a year module offered over 30 weeks and it requires at least 120 hours of study time. This means that you will have to study at least four (4) hours per week for this module. Here is a suggested schedule that you could use as a guideline for studying this module. ACTIVITY HOURS Reading and rereading Tutorial Letter 101 and the introduction to the study guide 3 Skimming through the study guide to form a general but thorough impression of the whole 4 First reading of learning units 1–7 and participating in the online e-tutor site (2 hours per learning unit) 22 In-depth study of learning units 1–3, making summaries, doing learning activities and participating in the online e-tutor site (6 hours per learning unit) 18 Completing Assignment 01 4 Completing Assignment 02 4 In-depth study of learning units 4–7, making summaries, doing learning activities and participating in the online e-tutor site (12 hours per learning unit) 48 Final examination revision 15 Final examination 2 Total 120 Below is an example of how you could structure your study plan. Period Activity March Familiarise yourself with the study material by scanning the study guide and obtaining and studying the Curriculum and Assessment Policy Statement for home language. Introduce yourself to your e-tutor and your fellow students on the Discussion Forum on myUnisa. April Start working on Assignment 01 (see Tutorial Letter 101). Complete and submit Assignment 01 on or before the due date. (No extension will be granted for this assignment.) May Study the prescribed reading for Assignment 02 (see Tutorial Letter 101). Try to participate in the Discussion Forum on myUnisa at least once this month. ........... xiii TM N3702 /1 T E ACH I N G O F H O M E L AN G UAG E June Complete and submit Assignment 02 on or before the due date. Try to participate in the Discussion Forum on myUnisa at least once this month. July Try to participate in the Discussion Forum on myUnisa at least once this month. August Start preparing for the examination. Discuss all your queries with your e-tutor or your lecturer and your fellow students on myUnisa. September to October Prepare for and write the examination. Participate in the discussion of the examination paper on myUnisa. vii. How should you go about studying this module? Once you have received your study material, you need to plan how you will approach and complete this module. You can use the study plan in the previous section as a guideline to draw up a reasonable study schedule that will guide you through the whole module. Remember to take into consideration the due dates for the assignments, as indicated in Tutorial Letter 101 for this module. The assignments in this module will take the form of written work and they should give you an idea of how well you are progressing in ...
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