Inflationforclass

Inflationforclass - Review Questions 1 Do we detect gamma...

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Review Questions: 1. Do we detect gamma rays from earth or from space? (What are the two types of light which can be observed on earth) 2. Is the observed distribution of gamma rays on the sky isotropic or anisotropic? 3. What are the 2 categories of gamma ray bursts, and what do we think the possible sources for these are? 4. Approximately how often is a gamma ray burst observed? 5. Do you think this is a good reflection of the true number of gamma ray bursts that go off in the universe? Why or why not? 6. Afterglows are associated with which source of gamma ray bursts?
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Did the Universe have a Bout of Inflation? (Mystery #4) Astr 2340 Spring 2010 R. Chandar
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Golden Age of Cosmology Standard Big Bang Cosmology Big Bang Nucleosynthesis Cosmic Microwave Background Did the Universe have a bout of Inflation ? Horizon Problem Flatness Problem – Multiverses Geometry and Curvature of Space
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Recall 4 Physical Forces (in order of strength): 1. Strong Force -- holds together fundamental particles (quarks, gluons) to form neutrons and protons (strongest of the 4 forces: 100x stronger than electromagnetic force, 10 13 x stronger than weak force, 10 38 x stronger than gravity) 2. Electromagnetic Force -- force that an electromagnetric force exerts on a charged particle (atractive or repulsive) 3. Weak Force - most familiar effect is associated with radioactivity, such as beta decay (conversion of neutron to proton by emission of an electron or positron) and 4. Gravitational Force -- Newton’s law of universal gravitation: “action at a distance”
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Big Bang?
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Big Bang Timeline We are here Big Bang Big Bang Nucleosynthesis
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Big Bang Timeline Along the time line there are three spontaneous symmetry breaks which separate the unified force into the four fundamental forces operating in today's universe. -- Gravity is the first force to “decouple” or become distinct -- Strong force was next, meaning that could bind nucleons and form nuclei -- theorized that when decoupled, triggered inflation -- weak force last to decouple
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Standard Big Bang Cosmology Sometime in the distant past there was nothing – space and time did not exist Vacuum fluctuations created a singularity that was very hot and dense The Universe expanded from this singularity As it expanded, it cooled Photons became quarks Quarks became neutrons and protons Neutrons and protons made atoms Atoms clumped together to make stars and galaxies
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Planck Era (t < 10 –43 sec) This era, the “first instant”, lasted for 10 –43 sec. Because we are as yet unable to link… quantum mechanics (our successful theory of the very small) general relativity (our successful theory of the very large) We are powerless to describe what happened in this era.
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