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Unformatted text preview: Urban Ring Decay: Re‐Utilizing Urban Voids to Unite a Diverse Cultural Fabric Gabriel Aleman Table of Contents Chapter 1 ..................................................................................... 3 . 1.1: Intro .................................................................................. 3 1.2: Thesis Statement .............................................................. 5 1.3: Cultural Assimilation ......................................................... 5 1.4: Dual‐Assimilation .............................................................. 7 1.4.1: Cultural importance ....................................................... 9 1.5: Disjunction ...................................................................... 11 1.6: Urban Ring Decay ............................................................ 13 1.6: Re‐Utilizing Urban Voids ................................................. 15 1.6.1: Winter Park Village .................................................. 15 1.6.2: Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center ....... 17 1.7: Interactive Acculturation ................................................ 19 Bibliography ............................................................................... 20 Chapter 2 ................................................................................... 23 . 2.1: Mecklenburg County, North Carolina ............................. 23 2.2: Economic conditions ....................................................... 25 2.3: Culture and arts .............................................................. 27 2.4: Population ....................................................................... 29 2.5: Building occupancy ......................................................... 31 1 Chapter 1` Bibliography ............................................................................... 32 2 Chapter 1 Figure 1.1: U.S. ancestry with largest population in county. Source: U.S. Census Bureau Chapter 1 1.1: Intro Dual assimilation was a key component in sculpting frequent encounters for new settlers to informally exchange ideas and create a sense of place. Dual cultural assimilation attribute to enriching American culture. The Americas, North, Central and South, were mainly colonized by the English, Spaniards, French and Portuguese. The configuration that these three countries colonized the Americas is still relevant if country’s borders were abstracted by spoken language thus affecting their culture. The U.S. cultural roots were affected by England, Spain, France, and West African Slavery (Figure 1.1). With time other parts of Europe migrated to the United States seeking religious freedom and prosperity. These early frames in U.S. migratory history American culture became stagnant subsequently to a phase of technology growth and poorly thought ideologies around World War II. Zoning laws, automobile transportation, and facilitation on mortgages interrupted dual cultural assimilation process. These notions that were meant to cause growth in the economy caused negative results on Main Street iconography part of American life. As a result of these ideologies, Malls, shopping strips, and big‐box stores became the only places people congregate and some of these are empty now due to the economy leaving behind urban voids but the impression of these as congregational space is fresh on people’s minds. enriched culture through dual Assimilation. Immigrants stepped into new territories with no formal identity. Individuals had a better sense of community and conceived urban living which eased dual assimilation to occur. The city’s density and walkable streets allowed for 3 Chapter 1` 4 Chapter 1 1.2: Thesis Statement Big box building vacancy is at historical highs and their single‐use identity tied to them is their major downfall. As a result of their failure, urban ring decay has tarnished American cities and a massive sum of infrastructure is decaying. Their metaphysical presence as congregational space is being unutilized. As new nationalities arrive to the U.S. they assimilate to the U.S. culture and leave theirs behind. This is a miss opportunity to enrich the U.S. culture. This thesis explores reestablishing dual assimilation through interactive acculturation in adaptive big box re‐use. 1.3: Cultural Assimilation which shaped its individuality. If the trends of cultural assimilation continuous recent immigrants could lose their ancestor’s cultures and individuality. The forming of the U.S., created a unique nation A group of Cambodians were disturbed by the weakening sense of culture caused by the seclusion from mainstream when they were asked “What does your community need to keep its culture vital and meaningful?” This issue is happening to various cultures as they expand their lives in the United States. The book also acknowledges that past cultural ideas have been eroded and new incoming cultures cores are “smooth out” by the media. According to the U.S. Census 32% of the U.S. is made up of minorities and by 2050 this will be 50%.3 Immigrants assimilate to the U.S. Culture and leave theirs behind. This cultural assimilation so far has been in one direction and the U.S. could benefit from dual assimilation 2 1 composed of multiple cultures that share traditions and ideals that evolved throughout its history. Even with problems of segregation, diverse ethnic groups share the identity of being United States Citizen has created music, art, and entertainment that draw characteristics of others.4 The unity of multiple nationalities has evolved dual assimilation and crossing moments in life. 5 Chapter 1` into an American cultural Fabric that was developed by Chapter 1 Figure 1.2.: U.S. immigration throughout its history and minorities input to its culture. Source: Gabriel Aleman 6 1.4: Dual‐Assimilation “Culture Consist of patterns, explicit and implicit, of and for behavior acquired and transmitted by symbols, constituting the distinctive achievement of human groups; the essential core of culture consists of traditional (historical derived and selected) ideas and especially their attached values; culture systems may, on the one hand, be sidered as product of action, on the other as conditioning elements of further action.”5 The origin of the individual plays a major role in by African and European music traditions, time to develop and socially incorporate into the American cultural fabric. The captivating interrelated blend that resulted from African and European music took time; prevalent issue to new incoming nationalities. The American cultural fabric has been deeply evolvement of cultural meaning. The United States is known for its diverse population. The ancestors of U.S. Citizens are from various parts of the world (Fig. 1.1). Different ethnic groups are attracted to this country that was based on religious freedom. Early in its history, the U.S. has experience several periods of immigration waves of individuals seeking refuge or The American Dream. An important role of assimilation is exposure. The author of The Ethnic Dynamic, Lawrence W. Levine, points out that his Jewish family structure and experiences outside his family have made him aware of cultural influences on art.6 Levine referenced Jazz music in the late 40’s; almost 175 years after African slaves were introduced into the U.S. This time period gave Jazz music, influenced influence by individuals from other countries. To better understand the cultural significant that immigrants play in American culture, time segments can be divided by age generations and these at times interlay within a 25 year time frame. These generations can be described by several components that make up their generation’s identity. The immigrants, individuals with immigrant ancestry and organizations have influenced the American cultural fabric. 7 Chapter 1` chart on the left highlights some of the elements that 8 Chapter 1 1.4.1: Cultural importance James Bau Graves, the author of Cultural Democracy, throughout his book makes references how consciousness of the “melting pot” metaphor has disregarded American Indians, African American, and other minorities.7 Meaning that the term doesn’t truly live up to its meaning that all cultures mix in one pot but in reality there are several pots mixing. Minorities make up for one third of the 310,722,000 total population of the U.S. according to the 2010 census and new immigrants make up 11.1 million.8 It’s important to pay attention to minorities’ culture since statistics state that 50% of the U.S. population will be made up of minorities by 2050. The intention of this thesis isn’t to downgrade or state that the current U.S. culture isn’t valuable but to reveal how minorities’ culture could enhance it. As a general statement, since cultural assimilation varies on multiple forces, minorities leave behind their cultural identity (family structure, ways of life, skills, religion, and celebrations) to assimilate a host culture. These new immigrants migrate to seek similar concepts of religious freedom and prosperities that earlier immigrants were after in earlier time frames of U.S. history. Early in its history cultural assimilation was, and still is, important factor to new immigrants as a form to be accepted by peers. Younger immigrants are more likely to assimilate to their cultural context. A major cause of this is culture shock since adapting would let them be part of the majority. Adults are also influenced but they are more likely to only adapt to certain entities of the adoptive culture. The parent/child transitionary passing of culture is broken in order for the child to reside cohesively in the future. At this transitional stage, the child’s growth of culture is limited to context leaving behind the possibilities cultural enrichment. New Immigrants desire to part of the American culture is due to the international force and global presence the U.S. possesses. 9 Chapter 1` Chapter 1 Figure 1.3: Interstate Highway System connecting 48 continuous states Source: National Atlas 10 1.5: Disjunction The American cultural fabric began without set rules. During its history, several ideologies have affected its texture. Unlike other countries, the U.S. did not have a term to describe itself. It could not even describe itself as in the same form as other nationalities. As a form to identify itself with its beginning roots, “American nation‐ builders” constructed “’one nation’ or ‘one people.’”9 Social and economical issues have played a major role in segregating ethnic groups and it has effected its cultural dual‐assimilation development. During the presidency of Roosevelt, Eisenhower, Reagan, and Carter, the U.S. needed an economic stimulus in which all presidents responded by creating public infrastructure, (airports, harbors, roads, sewers, bridges, dikes, dams, power corridors, terminals, and treatment plants) projects.10 With oil being abundant, cars become part of American culture and roads were built to suburbs, in which people become secluded within their own social class, leaving urban areas to lower income classes. Providing public jobs was ideal to stimulate the economy and it also was meant to create a new American family structure. The suburbs provided a fresh start to soldiers coming back home from War World II. There are several aspects in city planning that were not foreseeing what its future implication could be. We now know what these implications affects our environmentally and our wellbeing. Several sources have noted that suburbia living has negatively affected American culture and social segregation is perceptibly noticeable throughout American cities which have caused revulsions and distrusts.11 12 These are very important points that several books have been written on. One aspect that some sources have neglected to discuss is how American culture has become stagnant do to the fact that it’s lacking dual assimilation which made its richness.13 The interstate system was the largest element of infrastructure that is still being built in large volumes. (Fig. 1.3) The original purpose was to serve as a grid for defense system to ease mobility throughout the country; as the production of automobiles grew, the purpose of 11 Chapter 1` Figure 1.6: Vacant Shopping Center Source: Loopnet.com Figure 1.5: Vacant Walmart Source: Gabriel Aleman Figure 1.4: Eastland Mall Source: Deadmalls.com Chapter 1 Figure 1.3: Density throughout Urban Ring Decay Source: Gabriel Aleman 12 these became public.11 The interstates typically intersect in major cities and to alleviate circulation within the city auxiliary interstate highways have been implanted into urbanscape. Pierre Belanger, the writer of Redefining Infrastructure and Professor at Harvard GSD, brings up the fact that our current infrastructure is decaying and brings up several ideas on how to rebuild these with ecology in mind. Unarguably ecology is important but he leaves out the human role interaction out of his equation.12 The infrastructure that was developed as a way to stimulate the economy keeps getting rebuilt or fixed when in reality it needs to replace or reutilized to function positively. new building typologies replaced the iconographical view of Main Street culture. These become the new places to congregate. The only problem with these is that they isolate users from the outside and they also limit the amount interaction between users. Although the enclosed space allows for users to converse freely through its corridor, the interaction between individuals is more likely premeditated since both users most likely pre‐arranged the encounter before driving to its location. This wasn’t the case in cities that have cities with Main Street ideology. As the economy weakened, more of these buildings become unoccupied and developed into urban voids. As the primary critical building fails due to low sales, surrounding businesses fallow its lead and close for business. In macro scale, they fallow the order they were built; first the ones near urban areas and the successor fallows its step. The essential reason for this failure is due to the singular identity of these buildings. They do not include other aspects of everyday living such as housing and blending diverse social classes that kept the Main 1.6: Urban Ring Decay Part of the growth of highways and interstates noticeably created suburbs, dependency of cars, and building typologies that fit the new American life styles (Fig. 1.3). Malls (Fig. 1.4), big boxes (Fig. 1.5), and shopping strip malls (Fig. 1.6), were created on enormous parking lots surrounded by a vast amount of infrastructure. These 13 Chapter 1` Fig. 1.4: 24/7 Urban Area: Singapore Source: Corbis by Rex Butcher Fig. 1.8: Winter Park. Urban Re‐habilation Source: Fitgeneration.com by unknown Fig. 1.9: GMDC. Manufacturing Re‐Habilitation Source: Designlut.com by unknown Chapter 1 14 Street ideology alive. The failure of these has created designers to think of these voids as an opportunity to create neighborhoods, business environments, and retail strips incorporated simultaneously. city did not want to either waste the site’s growth potential or repeat a similar building life cycle, they opted to re‐utilize the site as a corridor to adjacent neighborhoods. The success of this re‐utilization was the idea to 1.6: Re‐Utilizing Urban Voids Several benefits arise from turning grey fields into new cities that function 24 hours a day. Key benefits are turning difficult to re‐use spaces into living spaces that promote interactivity with its users. Several elements of design such as, architecture aesthetic, user analysis, community connectivity, multiple usages, fit local needs, and design for human scale. An important element that was ignored in the design of malls was the ability to expand and re‐utilize itself effortlessly. These ideas were carefully analyzed in Winter Park Village and Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center. 14 13 break up the site into compact sections and letting time fill in sections thus creating intensity. This created an urban place creating 520,000 square feet of offices, retail, restaurants, entertainment and residential.17 The occupants of these spaces are mostly local merchants but some national merchants do lease the space as well. The arrangement of programming is ass follow: Retailers on ground level, offices and lofts above, and housing on the outer streets.18 This arrangement eases the transition from the existing neighborhoods to the core of the site. A local shopping corridor, Park Avenue, has not 1.6.1: Winter Park Village Winter Park Village used to be a 400,000 square been harmed by the success of Winter Park Village. The two meet the demands of the locals and revitalized adjacent neighborhoods.19 The scale of this design allowed for two separated communities to congregate in a new Florida, that opened in 1963 and the mall’s prosperity declined and subsequently failed by the mid‐90s.15 As the 15 Chapter 1` feet mall located on 32 acres of land in Winter Park, Chapter 1 16 form of space with a former ideology of congregational space. 1.6.2: Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center This organization has revolutionized the way trades that work together and created a substantially large fidelity with each other. The interconnected cohesive relationship that individuals have as owners/tenants/co‐ workers is what keeps this organization going. These individuals share open spaces and divide it according to their necessities; at times the openness of the space leads to unanticipated collaborations which results in innovative designs. Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center is a not‐for‐profit real estate development organization dedicated to the preservation and creation of permanent affordable manufacturing space.17 This organization restores old manufacturing properties that have been vacant to serve a large variety of manufacturing and industrial firm tenants. The beginning of this organization began with financial difficulties and bureaucracy doubts which questioned if the idea could take off into a reality. They came up with a check and balance system that involves local development corporations, city grants, and a nine member board of directors.18 This organization doesn’t make design a major significant aspect of their concept. The industrial buildings are historical and their preservation is considered are responsible for it as if it was their own property.19 17 Chapter 1` essential. The interior spaces are kept empty and tenants Singular Identity: Analysis of physical space, micro and macro context, current and past user patterns will provide planned program Adaptable Program: The program will consist of necessary public spaces that are no in proximity to users. Certain elements such as workshops and residential will be based on local potential demographics. Chapter 1 Urban Porosity: The hierarchy of interior and exterior streets is important. Streets provide unpremeditated moments for users to interact. Figure 1.10: Adaptive Re‐use Source: Gabriel Aleman 18 1.7: Interactive Acculturation Interactive: Acculturation: involving the actions or input of a user.20 cultural modification of an individual, group, or people by adapting to or borrowing traits from another culture; also: a merging of cultures as a result of prolonged contact.21 arrangement of these spaces needs to be reconsidered to fit its local context. At times these urban voids are located at seams of differences and cultural segregation. These voids could become an adhesive to join isolated cultural pockets throughout the cities. These buildings were built with budget and timing A major part of this research involved understanding dual assimilation and its impact on American Culture. This knowledge influenced the architecture approach to design through interactive acculturation. Urban voids can be reutilized as these can provided positive images for their cities. The planning of these voids will be based on local context analysis and a program suitable to be built upon adaptively. The identity of these spaces is confined between a constraints which is a reason why at times these become easily disposed. Their massive volume of space can be analyzed, broken down, and rearranged to piece together detached segregated communities. These can be arranged through the hierarchy of interior and exterior streets; as these provide unpremeditated moments for users to interact. solid line of public and private space. Considering the amount of time we spend inside of buildings opposed to time outside of them interacting with each other will be carefully analyzed so that the interaction between interior and exterior spaces can be gracefully experienced. We need covered enclosed spaces to work, live, and entertain. These spaces are meant as public spaces but the 19 Chapter 1` Bibliography 1 2 3 Graves, James. Cultural Democracy. p. 1. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005. Graves, James. Cultural Democracy. p. 9. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005 Table 4. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2010 to 2050" (Excel). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/files/nation/summary/np2008‐t4.xls. Retrieved 2010‐10‐24 Graves, James. Cultural Democracy. pp. 41‐61. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005. Kluckhohn, Clyde, Culture; a Critical Review of Concepts and Definitions. p. 181. Cambridge. The Museum: 1952 Levine, Lawrence. The opening of the American mind: canons, culture, and history. pp. 137‐139 Boston: Beacon Press, 1196 King, Desmond. The Liberty of Strangers: Making the American Nation. p. 4. New York.: Oxford University Press Mostafavi, Mohsen. Ecological Urbanism. Belanger, Pierre. Redefining Infrastructure. pp. 332‐347. Baden, Switzerland: Lars Muller, 2010. Hinshaw, Mark. True urbanism. Chicago, Illinois: Planners press, 2007. Levine, Lawrence. The opening of the American Mind. Boston: Beacon press, 1996. "Interstate System ‐ Design ‐ FHWA." Federal Highway Administration. Web. 17 Jan. 2011. <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/interstate.cfm>. Mostafavi, Mohsen. Ecological Urbanism. Belanger, Pierre. Redefining Infrastructure. pp. 332‐347. Baden, Switzerland: Lars Muller, 2010. Greenberg, Ellen. Greyfields into Goldfields: Dead Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. pp. 18‐ 29. San Francisco, C.A.: Congress for the New Urbanism, 2002 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 Bibliography 14 Greenberg, Ellen. Greyfields into Goldfields: Dead Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. pp. 40‐ 43. San Francisco, C.A.: Congress for the New Urbanism, 2002 20 15 Greenberg, Ellen. Greyfields into Goldfields: Dead Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. pp. 40‐41. San Francisco, C.A.: Congress for the New Urbanism, 2002 Greenberg, Ellen. Greyfields into Goldfields: Dead Dead Malls Become Living Neighborhoods. pp. 42. San Francisco, C.A.: Congress for the New Urbanism, 2002 "Interstate System ‐ Design ‐ FHWA." Federal Highway Administration. Web. 17 Jan. 2011. <http://www.fhwa.dot.gov/programadmin/interstate.cfm>. "Brian Coleman of the Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center • Design Glut." Design Glut. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. <https://www.designglut.com/2009/06/brian‐coleman‐of‐the‐greenpoint‐manufacturing‐and‐design‐center/>. "Brian Coleman of the Greenpoint Manufacturing and Design Center • Design Glut." Design Glut. Web. 21 Jan. 2011. <https://www.designglut.com/2009/06/brian‐coleman‐of‐the‐greenpoint‐manufacturing‐and‐design‐center/>. Interactive. 2010. In Merriam‐Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2010, http://www.merriam‐webster.com/dictionary/Interactive Acculturation. 2010. In Merriam‐Webster Online Dictionary. Retrieved Nov. 17, 2010, http://www.merriamwebster.com/dictionary/Acculturation Graves, James. Cultural Democracy. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005. Graves, James. Cultural Democracy. Urbana: University of Illinois, 2005. 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 21 Bibliography` Bibliography 22 Figure 2.1: Neighborhoods annexed to the city of Charlotte Chapter 2 2.1: Mecklenburg County, North Carolina Chapter one’s identified urban ring decay, its problems, case studies, and classify a potential solution to the problem. This chapter is to analysis Mecklenburg County and the city of Charlotte North Carolina. This county/city is an excellent of how urban ring decay has segregated cultural groups and how urban voids could be re‐utilized. Mecklenburg County is known for its attributes in banking, medicine, Universities, and Colleges and its history in cotton production. The largest city is Charlotte which was established at the crossroads of two Native American trading trails which is located in the downtown area and it has serve as a node for the city to grow. Currently this historical trading path contains four status representing transportation, future, commerce, and industry; four items that shaped Charlotte’s identity as a city .1837 it began to grow demographically diverse when the U.S. Congress founded a mint to fabricate gold coins; part of this growth is strongly tied to the appearance of railroads to distribute gold and other goods.2 As banking and paper currency grew as the main form of exchange, Charlotte’s center began to grow outwards it’s center. The city has experienced several time frames of growth but the most extensive was during the 1960‐1980, in which the city’s growth caused its infrastructure to extensively develop.3 This growth mainly consisted of interstate system, I‐77 and I‐85, to connect to other cities nearby but as the city suburban neighborhoods grew larger it auxiliary interstates, I‐277 and I‐485(over 20 years old and a small section is still left unfinished), were built. The auxiliary interstates are radial loops that easy the traveling time between nodes in the city. These cause suburban neighborhoods to further spread along with shopping malls, strip malls, and big box stores and annexed to the city of charlotte (Fig. 2.1). 23 Chapter 2` 24 Chapter 2 Figure 2.2: Population density migrating to Mecklenburg County Source: Gabriel Aleman 2.2: Economic conditions Charlotte’s identity as a city of a center of commerce and education has drawn individuals from other parts of the U.S. that live in heavy density urban areas (Fig. 2.2). The city is the 19th largest city in the U.S. (+25.8% growth since 1990) due to individuals seeking careers in industries such as construction, finance, scientific technical services, health care, and educational services which are relatively low in unemployment after a high unemployment rate in 2008 (Fig. 2.3). 4 5 Local employers and universities include: University of North Carolina at Charlotte (Medical, law, business, architecture and others), The estimated median household income is Figure 2.3: Economical Data Source: City‐Data.com $49,779, the estimated medium house or condo value is $175,600, and over %75 of population drives a car alone to work.6 Most of these individuals that fall around these figures live comfortable lifestyles in newer suburbs or apartments located within 10‐15 minutes of driven distance to groceries, shopping, banking, and other necessities. 25 Chapter 2` Figure 2.4: Discovery Place Source: Discoveryplace.org Figure 2.5: Nascar Hall of Fame Source: southeast.construction.com Figure 2.6: Bank of America Stadium Source: Elmorervpark.com 26 Chapter 2 2.3: Culture and arts Charlotte culture and arts sectors are as diverse as its population. The city and its municipalities contain a wide range of festivities, activities, sports, and attractions are spread out through out. Charlotte’s uptown area is also well known for its night life with performance centers, restaurants, and bars/clubs. The venues for these events bring large sums of revenue from people living in the county and surrounding counties as well. Discovery Place and the Mint museum of art are two of the most important museums. The Discovery Place is a science and technology museum located uptown for all ages. The downtown area experiences a high amount of visitors due to this center since it attracts schools for its learning experience and adults for its IMAX Dome Theatre. The NASCAR Hall of Fame (uptown) and Michael Waltrip Racing Holdings LLC (North Charlotte) are NASCAR theme attractions targeted towards their fan based which range Carolina Panthers that played in the Super Bowl XXXVIII in Houston, Texas in 2004 and lost. This event made Charlotte help increase the popularity of the city and individuals that wanted to move here. There are a large amount of venues that serve as congregational spaces and nodes throughout Charlotte’s urban rings. Most of these are widely spread out and target specific audiences. The locations of these are strategically placed away from a residential area which is a positive aspect since they create a lot of noise. These nodes are part that help identify Charlotte and help its growth. ages. The uptown cultural identity area also benefit from the Bank of America Stadium which is home of the 27 Chapter 2` another attraction that attracts locals and visitors of all Chapter 2 Figure 2.7: Iredell County General Zoning, Demographics, and population diversity throughout the past three census Source: Gabriel Aleman 28 2.4: Population Charlotte’s population as of 2009 estimate is 913,639 and its demographics are diverse; white: 54.1%, black: 29.8%, Hispanic: 11%, two or more race: 1.4%, Asian: 4.1%, American Indian: 0.6%.7 The current population in the U.S. is made up of 32% and by 2050 they will make up 50%.8 As of now, Charlotte’s demographics make up almost 50% of its total so in the future it could make up 70%. The reason for this demographic shift is that a large amount of incoming new residents come from diverse cultural cities and the city also attracts immigrants from multiple countries seeking careers. The city is also known for its younger population and the incoming residents are drawn by low cost of living. Many of these individuals are young and can’t afford the cost of living in the heavily density area of uptown, leaving them with the only option to move to suburbs. Some individuals are seeking for this new way of living since its As Charlotte grew, the uptown area was always well kept, suburbs kept growing outwards and as these neighborhoods grew older, lower income families moved in. This growth has created pockets of racial segregation throughout the city. Even though income levels range in all races, the majority of the time minorities are in the lower range of income levels. This matter has led them to move into neighborhoods that are generally known for cheaper properties in older suburbs. are considered a luxury (owning a home vs. renting, bigger homes, two car garage, and property size). 29 Chapter 2` considered quieter and certain aspects are suburban living Chapter 2 Figure 2.8: Shopping malls, strip malls, and big box stores layered over building vacanncy Source: Gabriel Aleman 30 2.5: Building occupancy As previously described, the auxiliary interstate rings in Charlotte are a major part of Charlotte’s growth. Due to the economy downfall, the aging of buildings, and new buildings getting built further away from the Charlotte’s center, the building occupancy is at its historical highs. The majority of these buildings tend to be around older sections of the city’s growth (Fig. 2.8). The vacancy and location of these buildings have negatively affected surrounding neighborhoods. These commercial buildings typically face major road arteries that link Charlotte’s uptown to the newer outer suburbs located outside of I‐485. Residential neighborhoods are blocked off from these massive blocks affecting the surrounding neighborhood vacancy. The intention of these buildings was to serve individuals traveling back home from work but since newer shopping centers located closer to their homes have been built, these older ones no longer serve their purpose. 31 Chapter 2` Bibliography 1 2 3 4 "Charlotte, North Carolina Facts, Schools, Colleges, Weather, Zip Code, and More." City Town Info ‐ U.S. Cities, Jobs and Careers, and College Search. Tue. 18 Jan. 2011. <http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/north‐carolina/charlotte>. "Charlotte, North Carolina Facts, Schools, Colleges, Weather, Zip Code, and More." City Town Info ‐ U.S. Cities, Jobs and Careers, and College Search. Tue. 18 Jan. 2011. <http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/north‐carolina/charlotte>. "THE GROWTH OF CHARLOTTE: A HISTORY." Historic Landmarks Commission. Web. 17 Jan. 2011. <http://cmhpf.org/educhargrowth.htm>. 2007, December. "Economic Development." Charlotte Chamber. Web. 18 Jan. 2011. <http://charlottechamber.com/index.php?submenu=EconomicForecastReport&src=gendocs&ref=EconomicForecast&category= Business_Profile>. "Charlotte, North Carolina (NC) Profile: Population, Maps, Real Estate, Averages, Homes, Statistics, Relocation, Travel, Jobs, Hospitals, Schools, Crime, Moving, Houses, Sex Offenders, News, Sex Offenders." Stats about All US Cities ‐ Real Estate, Relocation Info, House Prices, Home Value Estimator, Recent Sales, Cost of Living, Crime, Race, Income, Photos, Education, Maps, Weather, Houses, Schools, Neighborhoods, and More. Web. 18 Jan. 2011. <http://www.city‐data.com/city/Charlotte‐North‐ Carolina.html>. "Charlotte, North Carolina Facts, Schools, Colleges, Weather, Zip Code, and More." City Town Info ‐ U.S. Cities, Jobs and Careers, and College Search. Web. 19 Jan. 2011. <http://www.citytowninfo.com/places/north‐carolina/charlotte>. "Mecklenburg County QuickFacts from the US Census Bureau." State and County QuickFacts. Web. 20 Jan. 2011. <http://quickfacts.census.gov/qfd/states/37/37119.html>. Table 4. Projections of the Population by Sex, Race, and Hispanic Origin for the United States: 2010 to 2050" (Excel). U.S. Census Bureau. http://www.census.gov/population/www/projections/files/nation/summary/np2008‐t4.xls. Retrieved 2010‐10‐24 5 6 7 8 32 Bibliography 33 Bibliography` ...
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