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Module 20 - • Adaptations o Advantageous physical and...

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Module 20 GENES Genetics o Branch of biology that deals with the mechanisms of heredity Chromosomes o Rod-like structures, found in all biological cells, that contain DNA molecules in the form of genes Deoxyribonucleic Acid (DNA) o Complex molecular structure of a chromosome that carries genetic information o Four DNA bases Adenine Guanine Thymine Cytosine A, G, T, C Genes o The biochemical units of heredity that govern the development of an individual life Human genome o The genetic blueprint of making a complete human being Genotype o The underlying DNA sequence that an individual inherits o Not observable Phenotype o An organism’s observable properties, physical and behavioral EVOLUTION Natural Selection o The evolutionary process by which some genes in a population spread more than others, causing species to change over time o Darwin, 1859
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Unformatted text preview: • Adaptations o Advantageous physical and physiological traits that are inherited o Peter and Rosemary Grant Galapagos Finches • Mutations o Random gene copying errors that can spark evolution by natural selection • Evolutionary psychology o A subfield that uses the principles of evolution to understand human social behavior • Inclusive fitness o The notion that an organism’s genes are preserved not only through its own offspring but also through the offspring of genetic relatives o William Hamilton, 1964 • Kinship selection theory o The tendency for organisms to preferentially help others according to their genetic relatedness • Reciprocal altruism o The tendency for organisms to help members of other species, who may later return the favor o Robert Trivers, 1971...
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