judaism

judaism - 186 DAOISM HISTORICAL OUTLINE c. lil 1—255...

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Unformatted text preview: 186 DAOISM HISTORICAL OUTLINE c. lil 1—255 Bce—Zhou (Chou) dynasty c. 600—300 ace—taozi (Lao-tzu) may have lived during this time c. 475—221 act—Liezi (Lieh-tzu) may have lived during this time c. 365—290 Bce—Zhuangzi {Chuang-tzu) 206 ace—220 cE—Han dynasty 200—300 CEw—Ge Hong (Ko Hung): writings on alchemy 364—370 cE—the visionary Yang Xi (Yang Hsi) at the imperial court c. 400—448 ct-HEmperor Tai Wudi (T 'ai Wu Ti) of Northern Wei dynasty declares Daoism official imperial religion 618—907 CFTang (Fang) dynasty; Emperor Li Yuan, founder, claims descent from taozi 1949fi2hang Enbu (Chang En~pu), 63rd Celestial Master, moves to Taiwan from i990—Daoist sects and temples re— established in China ' REVIEW QUESTIONS 1 What is Emptiness for Laozi? Iliustrate. 2 Explain Zhuangzi's "True Man.” 3 Explain the meaning of the yin/yang circle. 4 Describe Taijiquan. DISCUSSION QUESTIONS 1 Why do Daoists speak in paradoxical riddles? Explain some. 2 ' What are the goals of Daoist meditation? 3 What does Daoism have to offer Western culture? INFORMATION RESOURCES Al Chung-liang Huang. Embrace Tiger, Return to Mountain: The Essence of Tai Chi. Moab, UT: Real People Press, 1973. Bokenkamp. Stephen, et ai. "Daoism," in Eng/ciopedia of Religion, ed. Lindsay Jones. 2nd ed. Vol. 4, pp. 2175—216, New York: Macmillan, 2005. Chuang-tzu. Basic Writings, trans. Burton Watson. New York: Columbia University Press, 1964. Huai-Chin Nan. Tao and Longevity trans. Wen Kuan Chu. Shaftesbury, Dorset: Eiement Books, 1988. Kohn, Livia. The Taoist Experience: An Anthoiogy. Albany, NY: State University of New York Press, 1993. Seidei, Anna, and Michael Strickmann. "Daoism," in Encyclopedia Britannica. Vol. 28, pp. 383796. London, 1997. Young, Serinity, ed. An Anthology of Sacred Texts by and about Women. New York: Crossroad, 1995. CHAPTER 8 IUDAISM In the West, the oldest of the major global reiigions is Judaism. It is in fact the seminal tradition for the two largest existing world religions: Christianity and Islam. They all share a central belief in monotheism; all aiso refer back to the first Hebrew patriarch: Abraham. It is thought that he lived some time between 1900 and 1700 race. God is said to have calied him to Canaan and made a covenant with him that he would be the father of a great nation. In addition, his first son,=lshmael, is con- sidered the progenitor of the Musiim lineage. Jewish tradition recognizes many later patriarchs and prophets. Moses is believed to have led the Israelites out of bondage in Egypt, to have spoken directly to Go'd,'and to have received God's commandments for the people. The revered King David united the kingdoms of Judah and Israel and established his capitai in Jerusalem. His son Solomon (r. c. 967—928 Bce)increased the extent, wealth, and power of the kingdom of Israel and built the great Tempie in Jerusalem for the priests to strengthen Hebrew piety. But the power of the nation diminished compared to surrounding empires untii 586 BCE, when Babylonia captured Jerusaiem, destroyed the Temple, and took many Jews into exile. Fifty years later somewere allowed to return and rebuild the Temple, but the Hebrew kingdom had by then become a dispersed people (the Diaspora). After the Second Temple was destroyed by the Roman occupiers in 70 cc, ' Judaism was maintained and shaped primarily by rabbis: teachers, decision— makers, and interpreters of the written and oral traditions. Outside Israel, Babylon became a center of Jewish theological activity; Jewish intellectual life also tlourished in Spain, France, and Germany, and under Muslim rule in Baghdad. Despite their growing cultural and financiai power, Jewish people were eventually oppressed by certain Christians in Western Europe, which led to largerscale massacres, ultimately including the murder of over a third of the world's Jews by Nazi Germany during World War II. In 1948 a special "homeland" for Jews was established in Palestine and given the ancient name of Israel, but it has never been free from tensions with the earlier and surrounding inhabitants of that area. ' Today many people who are Jewish by birth do not practice the Orthodox tra- dition. Nevertheless, there is a renewai of interest in Judaism today, both among Conservatives and among Refor’m Jews who are re-interpreting their traditions to find their relevance to contemporary life. ....... .Sal-amuxvcvs‘ixwrqusiuxviwzvvir. a... - 188 JUDAISM The Jewish Bible: Tanakh The Jewish Bible, written in the Hebrew language, is called the Tanakh, an acronym for its three parts: ' ‘ 1 The Torah ("teaching" or "law"), which is the first five books: Genesis, Exodus, Leviticus, Numbers, Deuteronomy. These are traditionally believed to have been given by God and written by Moses; they are also known as the Pentateuch, or "five scrolis." They contain the major founding traditions of the faith and the establishment of the Law. _ 2 The Prophets (Nevi’r‘m) are a grdup of books ascribed to leading reformers such as lsaiah. The prophets spoke boldiy and critically of the flaws in their society, but also promised a Messiah to free them and iead them to power. 3 The Wisdom Literature, or Writings (Kethuvr'm), is a diverse collection of texts, ranging from poetic Psalms to the nearly tragic drama of Job. ' With many parts originating as oral tradition, the Tanakh was slowly written down over hundreds of years, particularly during the Exile, 586—535 BCE. It was translated into Greek from about 200 BCE. Foliowing the destruction of Jerusalem in 70 cr the canon was gradually collected and finalized by rabbis. TORAH , ' The Five Books of Moses start with Genesis, which includes two stories The Torah of God‘s creation, Adam and Eve's disobedience, Noah’s flood, and the lives of the patriarchs Abraham, isaac, Jacob, and matriarchs Sarah, Rebekah, Leah, and Rachel, their wives. Exodus tells of God‘s liberation of the Hebrews from Egyptian siavery, led-by Moses, his reception of the Torah's first Ten Commandments at the holy Mount Sinai, many later laws, and some historical accounts. Leviticus is a manual of rules for the ancient Hebrews. The movement of the tribes from Sinai to Canaan is recorded in Numbers. Deuteronomy includes a long farewell address from Moses and his death.‘ Since the nineteenth century, scholars have made historical and literary analyses of the Torah. They have found evidence that the Pentateuch is woven like a rope from strands of four different texts, from different historical periods: the Yahwist, the Elohist, the Priestly, and the Deuteronomic. In the Beginning from Genesis- The first book of the Torah begins with creation, which schoiars divide into two sec- tions. The first (a "Priestly" rein) is the account of God's cosmic creation (Genesis 1:1—2:4). in six days, God created the universe from a void, the earth, vegetation, and humans, male and female in the divine image, giving humans responsibility for creation. On the seventh day he rested, which is why the Sabbath is kept as a holy day each week. in the second creation account (Genesis 2:43:24, 3 “Yahwist” text),rGod first created one human, ha’adam ("earthling," from ha’ao‘amah, "earth"). Later he JUDAESM 189 made a second person, as the first one was lonely, and thus created ish and i'shshah, man and woman (Adam and Eve). This is why “a man leaves his parents and cleaves to the woman and the two become one flesh." God then created veg- etation and animals in the Garden of Eden. Eve, tempted by the serpent, took the fruit of the tree of knowledge of good and bad. She'gave some to Adam; both ate. Their punishment was to labor—Eve in childbirth, Adam in the fields—and ulti- mater to die. This creation account is markedly different from the; neighboring Babylonian Enuma Elish, in which many gods fight with each other untii chaotic Tiamat is kiiled by heroic Marduk. However, the Genesis 6 flood story is very similar to the Babyionian Epic of Gilgamesh and Noah compares with Utnapishtim. The First Creation Account in Genesis When God began to create heaven and earth—the earth being unformed and void, with darkness over the surface of the deep and a wind from God sweeping over the waterTGod said, "Let there be light”; and there was light. God saw that the light was good, and God- separated the light from the darkness. God called the light Day, and the darkness He called Night. And there was evening and there was morning, a first day. 7 God said, “Let there be an expanse in the midst of the water, that it may separate waterfront water.” God made the expanse, and it separated the water which was below the expanse from the water which was above the expanse. And it was so. God called the expanse Sky. And there was evening and there was morning, a second day. God said, “Let the water below the sky be gathered into one area, that the dry land may appear. ” And it was 50. God called the dry land Earth, and the gathering of waters He called Seas. And God saw that this was good. And God said, "Let the earth sprout vegetation: seed-bearing'plants, fruit trees of every kind on earth that bear fruit with the seed in it."*And it was so. The earth brought forth vegetation: seed-bearing plants of every kind, and trees of every kind bearing fruit with the seed in it. And God saw that this was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a third day. God said, "Let there be lights in the expanse of the sky to separate day from night; they shall serve as signs for the set times—the days and the years; and they shall serve as lights in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth.” And it was 50. God made two great lights, the greater light to dominate the day and the lesser light to dominate the night, and the stars. And God set them in the expanse of the sky to shine upon the earth, to dominate the day and the night, and to separate light from darkness. And. God saw that this was good. And there was evening and there was morning, a fourth day. 7 God said, "Let the waters bring forth swarms of living creatures, and birds that fly above the earth across the expanse of the sky." God created the great sea monsters, and all the living creatures of every kind that creep, which the waters brought forth in swarms, and all the winged birds of every kind. And God saw that this was good. God blessed them, saying, "Be fertile ...
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judaism - 186 DAOISM HISTORICAL OUTLINE c. lil 1—255...

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