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Chapter3Outline - Part II Beginnings Chapter 3 Forming a...

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Part II: Beginnings Chapter 3: Forming a New Life Introduction Chapter 3 begins a new unit that focuses on conception, infancy, and early childhood. More specifically, this chapter begins with a Research in Action section that explores genetic testing and genetic engineering. This section describes the new field of science called genomics and medical genetics. The ethical and scientific ramifications of these new capabilities are also examined. The process of conception is detailed in the beginning of the chapter. The causes of multiple births are explored, as are the genetic and chromosomal compositions of sex determination. Genetic transmission is discussed including dominant and recessive patterns of inheritance. Sex linked genetic transmissions are explored, as are chromosomal disorders and the benefits of genetic counseling. This section of the chapter concludes with an in-depth investigation of the nature/nurture argument. The authors also describe the value of twin and adoption studies. Some of the characteristics examined in closer detail include the following: obesity intelligence personality and psychopathology The second portion of the chapter examines prenatal development, including the germinal, embryonic, and fetal stages. This is followed by discussion of environmental hazards to the developing baby, including the following: nutrition drug intake, including medical drugs alcohol nicotine caffeine marijuana, cocaine, and methamphetamine maternal illnesses maternal stress and anxiety maternal age outside environmental hazards A separate section focuses on paternal factors in the development of the baby. The chapter concludes with discussions of monitoring and promoting prenatal development, disparities in prenatal care, and the need for preconception care. Detailed Chapter Outline with Key Terms 1
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Chapter 3: Forming a New Life Research in Action: Genetic Testing and Genetic Engineering CONCEIVING NEW LIFE How Fertilization Takes Place Fertilization : Fusion of sperm and ovum to produce a zygote; also called conception. Gametes: The sex cells, ovum and sperm. Zygote : One-celled organism resulting from fertilization. Follicle: Small sac in the ovary containing the immature ovum. Ovulation: The rupture of a mature follicle and expulsion of the ovum. Cilia: Tiny hair cells in the fallopian tubes that sweep the ovum along. Cervix: The opening of the uterus. What Causes Multiple Births? Dizygotic (two-egg) twins : Twins conceived by the union of two different ova (or a single ovum that has split) with two different sperm cells; also called fraternal twins. Monozygotic (one-egg) twins : Twins resulting from the division of a single zygote after fertilization; also called identical twins.
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