Chapter7Outline - Part III Early Childhood Chapter 7...

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Part III: Early Childhood Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood Introduction The second major section of the chapter is devoted to cognitive development primarily consisting of the Piagetian approach. Preoperational thought is discussed in terms of: symbolic function. spatial thinking. causality. identities and categorization. number. The immature aspects of preoperational thought are also outlined, specifically centration, conservation, and egocentrism. This section is concluded with some debate about whether or not young children have theories of mind. The information-processing approach to cognitive development is outlined in the next section. Basic processes and capacities of memory and aspects of childhood memories are highlighted. The relationships between social interaction, culture, and memory are also addressed. The chapter also summarizes psychometric and Vygotskian approaches to cognitive development. This section looks at traditional psychometric measures, influences on measured IQ, and testing and teaching based on Vygotsky's theory. The next major section of the chapter focuses on language development. In this section, some of the major topics explored are vocabulary, grammar and syntax, pragmatics and social speech, private speech, delayed language development, social interaction, and preparation for literacy. The chapter concludes with discussion of early childhood education. A cross-cultural view of preschool is presented as well as some discussion of compensatory preschool programs. Finally, the transition to kindergarten is the last topic for this chapter. Detailed Chapter Outline with Key Terms Chapter 7: Physical and Cognitive Development in Early Childhood PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT ASPECTS OF PHYSICAL DEVELOPMENT Bodily Growth and Change Sleep Patterns and Problems 1
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Sleep terror: The abrupt awakening of a child or adult from deep sleep in a state of panic, usually about one hour after falling asleep. The person typically remembers nothing about the episode in the morning. Also known as a night terror. Enuresis : Repeated urination in clothing or in bed. Brain Development Motor Skills Gross motor skills : Physical skills that involve the large muscles. Fine motor skills : Physical skills that involve the small muscles and hand-eye coordination.
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