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2010 Module IV Taxonomy %26 Systematics3

2010 Module IV Taxonomy %26 Systematics3 - Biol 206 2010 1...

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Biol 206 2010 Module IV Taxonomy & Systematics IV. 1 MODULE IV TAXONOMY & SYSTEMATICS Instructor Dr. Daniel Schoen Objectives To be able to taxonomically identify a specimen to the genus level To become familiar with the use of a dissecting microscope To mount a specimen for examination under a dissecting microscope To practically use taxonomic keys to identify taxa To use the web-based taxonomic tools, such as AntWeb To learn and apply the concept of DNA barcoding to identify species To build a phylogeny based on morphological and DNA barcoding data To use the latest computer software for this purpose Work required - 2 weeks Week One Learn the morphology of an ant Mount a specimen on insect pin Use taxonomic key to identify the specimen Confirm results using AntWeb Week Two Identify unknown ant specimen DNA barcoding excercise: download, compare, and align DNA barcode sequences (to be handed in at the end of class) Morphology phylogeny exercise (to be handed in at end of class) DNA phylogeny exercise (to be handed in at the end of class) ***It is essential that you attend the lectures for these labs to get the necessary background to successfully complete the labs. *** METHOD OF EVALUATION Week One: Taxonomic identification 15% Week Two: Identification of unknown 30% DNA barcoding exercise 15% Morphology phylogeny exercise 15% DNA phylogeny exercise 15% Overall participation 10%
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Biol 206 2010 Module IV Taxonomy & Systematics IV. 2 PART I: TAXONOMY The Goal of Taxonomy : The goal of taxonomy is to discover , order , and communicate patterns of biological diversity. A Brief History of Taxonomy : Taxonomy is the oldest discipline in biology, and one of the oldest traditions in science that dates back at least as far as Aristotle (382-322 B . C .). Aristotle, who is known as the “father of biological classification,” emphasized in his book Historia animalium that animals should be classified according to their way of living, actions, habits, and body parts. Aristotle recognized major groups of animals, such as birds, fishes, whales, and insects. He characterized groups of animals by the presence or absence of particular features of an organism. For example, he divided all animals into those that have blood and those that do not, or insects into those that have wings and those that do not. Another important milestone in taxonomy was the publication of John Ray’s Synopsis Methodica Animalium Quadrupe-dum et Serpentini Generis in 1693. He and a number of colleagues during this same period, such as Magnol, Tournefort, Rivinus, Bauhin, focused on the classification of both plants and animals. Their classification schemes in general followed Arisitotle’s footsteps, in that he classified the whole of the animal kingdom on the presence and absence of particular features. For example, animals were divided into those that possess gills and those that possess lungs, or those that produce eggs or those that do not. They subdivided the whole of the animal kingdom producing a base on which our present hierarchical system is build upon.
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