2010 Module VI Microbiology2

2010 Module VI Microbiology2 - Biol 206 2010 Module VI...

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Biol 206 2010 Module VI Microbiology VI. 1 MODULE VI Experimental Evolution Instructor Prof. Andrew Gonzalez Objectives To establish an experiment to test an evolutionary theory To manipulate and culture microorganisms (Eukaryote: Saccharomyces cerevisiae ) To evaluate alternative hypotheses through statistical analysis. Work required - 2 weeks Week One Establish a laboratory experiment to study evolutionary rescue. Week Two Analyse class data and complete a report summarizing your results. ***It is essential that you attend the lectures for these labs to get the necessary background to successfully complete the labs. *** METHOD OF EVALUATION Week One: Establish experiment correctly 40% Week Two: Data collection and analysis Lab report 60%
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206 2010 Module VI Microbiology VI. 2 PART I: An Experimental Test of Evolutionary Rescue Summary : We will use techniques in experimental evolution to reveal the conditions under which evolution can rescue declining populations due to rapid environmental change. Experimental Evolution : The field of experimental evolution is concerned with testing hypotheses and theories of evolution through use of controlled experiments. Evolution may be observed in the laboratory as populations adapt to new environmental conditions. With modern molecular tools, it is possible to pinpoint the mutations that selection acts upon. Because of the large number of generations required for adaptation to occur, evolution experiments are typically carried out with microorganisms such as bacteria, yeast or viruses. However, laboratory studies with rodents have shown that notable adaptations can occur within as few as 10-20 generations, and experiments with wild guppies have observed adaptations within a comparable number of generations. Experimental evolution began 130 years ago. In the late 19th century, William Dallinger cultivated small unicellular organisms in a custom-built incubator over a time period of seven years (1880-1886). Dallinger slowly increased the temperature of the incubator from an initial 60 °F up to 158 °F. The early cultures had shown clear signs of stress at a temperature of 73 °F, and were not capable of surviving at 158 °F. The organisms Dallinger had in his incubator at the end of the experiment, on the other hand, were adapted to 158 °F. However, these organisms would no longer grow at the initial 60 °F. Dallinger concluded that he had found evidence for adaptation in his incubator, and that the organisms evolved to live in a high-temperature environment. Unfortunately, Dallinger's incubator was accidentally destroyed in 1886, and Dallinger could not continue this line of research. Drawing of the incubator (left) used by Dallinger in his evolution experiments during the 19 th century. Today we use robots (right) that can automatically manipulate liquids and control the environment of thousands of replicate experimental populations without human intervention. The Department of Biology at McGill as one of these robots in its LE3 facility.
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2011 for the course BIOL 206 taught by Professor Prof during the Fall '08 term at McGill.

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2010 Module VI Microbiology2 - Biol 206 2010 Module VI...

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