Educational Psychology - ESPY 2130 Notes 9/28/10 What is...

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ESPY 2130 Notes 9/28/10 What is intelligence? - Theoretical construct (not tangible) -most theories about the nature of intelligence include in their definition: 1. capacity to learn 2. total knowledge a person has acquired 3. ability to adapt successfully to new situations and environments -Intelligence v. Intelligence Quotient (IQ) -comparison of childs mental age v. chronological age One Ability -Spearman: general intelligence, intelligence is explained by one main ability “G”, performance on tasks also includes specific abilities: mechanical, spatial, numerical, and verbal. G accounts for general level of all abilities within a person, can be slight variation between abilities within a person (see chart on slideshow) Two Abilities -Cattell and Horn: fluid intelligence and crystallized intelligence. 1. Fluid intelligence: nonverbal and culture free; problem solving, abstract thinking, reasoning. Influences development of crystallized intelligence 2. Crystallized Intelligence: dependent upon exposure, acquired skills and knowledge of facts Hierarchical Theory of abilities -Carroll: General Intelligence fluid intelligence, crystallized intelligence, general memory and learning Multiple Intelligences Theory -Gardner: intelligence is the ability to solve problems and create products or outcomes that are valued by culture, opposite of the G theory. -many agree with this theory because everyone has strengths and weaknesses, so makes sense -mentions 8 areas of intelligence -problem because not a lot of research backing up this theory Triarchic Theory -Sternberg -Analytic Intelligence: mental processes underlying intelligent behavior -Creativity: dealing with new experiences automaticity in problem solving -Practical Intelligence: choosing, adapting to, and reshaping one’s environment IQ tests History -started in late 1800’s, psychometrics, psychological labs, senses and reaction times -Binet and Simon created first IQ test to identify school aged children with mental retardation. Binet- Simon scale 1905 later became the Stanford-Binet -Yerkes 1917- Army Alpha and Army beta -Wechsler Tests -IQ designed so people will generally fall in the middle range, with a few at the front and back ends
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Intelligence: Genes, Environment, or Both? -support for genetic contribution: heritability studies -Support for environmental contribution: Hart and Risley (professional v working class families), Romanian orphanages -nature vs. nurture -prenatal health and care IQ and Life -predictive -strongly correlated with school success; Sternberg’s explanation -not strongly correlated with life success, except at bottom percentiles -somewhat inheritable (mainly at the top and bottom) but also very impacted by environment (especially early) -within the normal range, differences matter little Issues in IQ testing -group v individual administration -stability and age, reason IQ ratio is not done anymore, becomes more stable with age -flynn effect: average score on an IQ test improves each decade, updated every 10 yrs
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2011 for the course EPSY 2130 taught by Professor Callahan during the Fall '08 term at University of Georgia Athens.

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Educational Psychology - ESPY 2130 Notes 9/28/10 What is...

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