Term paper on Zinc and PCa

Term paper on Zinc and PCa - Review Zinc and Prostate...

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1 Review Zinc and Prostate cancer Nitya Reddy Jakka #37039042 Abstract Human glandular epithelial prostate cells have evolved for the accumulation of high levels of zinc in them. Zinc has been identified to affect prostate cells in two ways: inhibition of m- aconitase and induction of mitochondrial apoptogenesis. The former is essential to prevent the oxidation of citrate which is an important component of prostatic fluid. In a normal prostate, zinc inhibition of m-aconitase activity results in suppressing citrate oxidation, and increases citrate production. Recent studies have shown that zinc induces mitochondrial apoptogenesis in cultured PC3 cells. These effects are currently being studied in vivo. Keywords : Apoptogenesis/ Aconitase/ Citrate/ Prostate/ Zinc 1 Introduction 1.1 Prostate cancer The incidence of prostate cancer has been increasing worldwide. 200,000 men are diagnosed with prostate cancer each year in United States alone and out of every six men one will be diagnosed in their lifetime. In the US, about 30,000 men die from prostate cancer each year, making prostate cancer the second biggest cancer killer of men, behind lung cancer [1].
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2 Production and secretion of prostatic fluid is the primary function of the prostate gland [2-4]. The etiology of prostate cancer has not been understood yet. A few risk factors have been established some of which are age, family history and race [5]. One of the early events in the development and progression of prostate cancer is the metabolic transformation of normal zinc-accumulating prostate epithelial cells to malignant cells that have lost the ability to accumulate zinc [6, 7]. This metabolic transformation is required for the tumor suppressive effects of zinc to be eliminated so that the malignant process can proceed. The genetic and molecular mechanisms responsible for and associated with the development and progression of malignant prostate cells are largely unidentified [8, 9]. Also the role of altered cellular metabolism as an essential factor in prostate malignancy is largely ignored [10, 11]. 1.2 Zinc and its role in prostate cancer Zinc is the most abundant trace element in the human body. It has been found to be vital for the function of many enzymes and proteins in all cells of the body. It is essential for the normal growth, reproduction, and functional activities of all mammalian cells, including prostate cells, and the body in general [12, 13]. Zinc-finger motif is an important component of almost all transcription factors and other proteins which bind nucleic acids and requires zinc for its formation [14]. The normal epithelial cells of the prostate gland accumulate high levels of zinc in them. The importance of zinc can be understood from several studies which have established that men
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Term paper on Zinc and PCa - Review Zinc and Prostate...

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