Structure_and_Function

Structure_and_Function - 1665 Robert Hooke was the first to...

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1665 Robert Hooke was the first to describe microorganisms. Figure 1.9
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1676 Antoni van Leeuwenhoek was the first to describe bacteria Fig. 1.10
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4 types of light microscopy 1. Brightfield Simplest Specimen illuminated, magnified 1000x Specimen stained to increase contrast 10x objective = 100x total magnification 100x objective = 1000x total magnification
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2. Phase Contrast and 3. Darkfield Visualize live samples No staining required Image contrast derived from cell structures Brightfield Phase Contrast Darkfield Fig. 2.5
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4. Fluorescent visualization of autofluorescent molecules or fluorescent stains Chlorophyll autofluorescence DAPI fluorescence Fig. 2.6
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Compound light microscopes brightfield, phase-contrast, darkfield, fluorescent optimize image resolution by using lenses with high light-gathering characteristics limit of resolution ~ 0.2 μ m
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Electron microscopes Limit of resolution 0.2 - 4nm Two types of electron microscopy 1. Transmission electron microscope (TEM) for observing internal cell structure 2. Scanning electron microscope (SEM) for three- dimensional imaging and viewing surfaces
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SEM TEM dividing Bacillus subtilis Rhodo-vibrio sodomensis Fig. 2.10a Fig. 2.10c
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Mycobacterium leprae visualized by SEM Mycobacterium leprae visualized by TEM
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Significance of Being Small Microorganisms are as small as 0.2μm. Size affects physiology, growth rate, and ecology.
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High surface area–to–volume ratio aids in nutrient and waste exchange with the environment Fig. 4.3
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nanobacteria ? Is it possible to contain all essential molecules of life within a volume of a cell less than 0.2μm?
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Form Groups Draw and label a cell
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Basic components of all microbial cells cytoplasm cytoplasmic membrane ribosomes Two structural types of cells are recognized: prokaryote and eukaryote
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Fig. 2.17
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Prokaryotic cell Fig. 2.11a
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Eukaryotic cell - some photosynthetic cells All eukaryotic cells have these structural components Cell wall Fig. 2.11b
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Size comparison Fig. 2.13c
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Cytoplasmic membrane “fluid” highly selective permeability barrier made of lipids and proteins Fig. 4-16 Fig. 4.5
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