Metabolism

Metabolism - Metabolism Nutrients for biosynthesis Waste...

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Metabolism
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Nutrients for biosynthesis Energy source (organic and inorganic compounds, light) Waste products (fermentation products: acids, alcohols, gases; reduced electron acceptors) Energy For motility, transport of nutrients, etc. Energy for biosynthesis Anabolism Catabolism Macromolecules and other cell components
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Metabolism Sum of all reactions Catabolic - energy-producing Anabolic - biosynthetic (energy-using)
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Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) reactions Oxidation - loss of electrons Reduction - gain of electrons Redox reactions are coupled: Electron donor transfers electrons to acceptor Donor is oxidized and acceptor is reduced
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Example of a redox reaction Fig. 5.9
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Electron carriers help transfer electrons from donor to acceptor membrane-bound (cytochrome c) freely diffusible coenzymes (NAD + /NADH) Oxidized Reduced NAD + Adenine Ribose Ribose Nicotinamide Phosphate added in NADP + Adenine Ribose Ribose Phosphate added in NADPH NADH Nicotinamide
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NAD+ Fig. 5.12 Isocitrate Isocitrate dehydrogenase α-ketoglutarate NADH NAD + CO 2
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NADH Fig. 5.12 α-ketoglutarate + NH 3 Glutamate dehydrogenase Glutamate NAD + NADH
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Catabolism
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Energy is released from redox reactions Energy is stored in molecules and transported where needed Energy storage compounds Short term Adenosine triphosphate ( ATP ) 2 phosphoanhydride bonds (high energy phosphate bonds) primary energy carrier in the cell Derivatives of coenzyme A – thioester bonds Long term Glycogen Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Elemental sulfur
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Fig. 5.13 Poly-β-hydroxybutyrate Fig. 4.31
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Chemoorganotroph Source: organic compound Process: fermentation, aerobic respiration, or anaerobic respiration Chemolithotroph Source: inorganic compound Process: anaerobic respiration Energy & Electrons
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Types of Phosphorylation 1. Substrate level phosphorylation A phosphate group (PO 4 3- ) is removed from a substrate and added to ADP to make ATP 2. Oxidative phosphorylation Inorganic phosphate (free PO 4 3- ; P i ) is added onto ADP to make ATP by ATP synthase.
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Major pathway of glucose metabolism 2 ATP and 2 pyruvate generated per glucose Occurs in the cytoplasm of cells capable of using glucose Glycolysis
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Fig. 5.15
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Fermentation vs. Respiration Both use energy released from redox reactions to make ATP. Electron acceptor present → respiration No exogenous electron acceptor → fermentation
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Fermentation Fig. 5.14a Anaerobic means of generating ATP Organic compounds serve as electron acceptors and donors Substrate level phosphorylation
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Various fermentable substances Nucleic acids Other compounds Purines Pyrimidines Alcohols Ethanol Ethylene glycol Arginine Agmatine Allantoin Pyrimidines Crotonate Lysine Glutamate γ -Amino- butyrate Purines Methanol Organic acids Lactate Acrylate Malate Fumarate Succinate Citrate Amino acids Alanine Glutamate Histidine Aspartate Glycine Serine Cysteine Tryptophan Sugars Hexoses Glycolysis Fructose-1,6-PP Pentoses Pentose phosphate pathway Gluconate-6-P
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course BIOL 2051 taught by Professor Brininstool during the Spring '07 term at LSU.

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Metabolism - Metabolism Nutrients for biosynthesis Waste...

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