Chin and Benne termed their resulting approaches: empirical- rational, normative- reeducative, and power-coercive. The critical difference among these approaches is the motivation the influencing agent attributes to the target of the influence attempt. Empirical Rational Approach The underlying philosophy of empirical- rational approaches is that people are essentially rational and will change their behavior when the change is justifiable to them on an intellectual level. In other words, if a person thinks that it is logical and important to change, he or she will do so if given the proper information. It is only ignorance and superstition that act to prevent behavior change from occurring (Chin and Benne, 1969). Normative Reeducative Approach This approach assumes that people are active organisms, who depend on new knowledge as well as a variety of noncognitive, sociocultural determinants to arrive at a decision of whether to change. When using these approaches, therefore, the influencing agent tries to
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Henry David Thoreau,
Martin Luther King, Jr., Benne, empirical- rational approaches, Empirical Rational Approach