MGMT notes - Chapter One: Management and Organizations Two...

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Chapter One: Management and Organizations Two different meanings of management o Where someone is located within an organization (levels of management) o What Managers do Attain organizational goals in an effective and efficient manner through planning, organizing, leading, and controlling organizational resources Levels of management (typically 3 levels) o First-line manager Directly involved in producing goods and services o Middle Manager Responsible for major departments o Top Managers Responsible for the entire organization Effectiveness the degree to which the organization achieves a stated goal Efficiency/Productivity: the amount of resources used to achieve an organizational goal ( measure the amount of output divided by measure of input) The Functions of Management o Planning: defining goals for future organizational performance and deciding on tasks and resources to attain them o Organizing: assigning tasks, grouping tasks into departments, and allocating resources to departments. o Leading: the use of influence to motivate employees to achieve the organizations goals o Controlling: monitoring employees’ activities, keeping the organization on track toward its goals, and making corrections as needed Chapter Two: Foundations of Management Historical Perspectives o Classical: administrative principles, scientific management, and bureaucratic organizations o Humanistic: Human relations, behavioral, human resources o Management science Theory X (Classic) o People dislike work and will avoid it if possible o People must be coerced and directed to get them to put forth adequate effort Theory Y (Recent) o People do not inherently dislike work o People will accept and seek responsibility Henri Fayol o Administrative principles- to operate an organization o Defined the job of a manager o Industrialist, CEO of French Railroad company o Administrative principles o Unity of Command Focused on upper management
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o Division of Work Each subordinate receives orders from only one superior o Authority Greater efficiency results when managers and workers specialize o Centralization Managers retain final responsibility; authority must match responsibility Scientific Management o Taylorism/Scientific Management “A subfield of the classical management perspective that emphasized scientifically determined changes in management practices as the solution to improving labor productivity” o Fredrick W. Taylor Founding father of scientific management Factory floor observations prompted him to deny workers who “soldiered” - the slackers of his day Concerned with the “one best way” Assumed that people are rational The Pie One Best Way + Rationality = Greater output per person = pie Hawthorne Studies Conclusions o Illumination Study o No obvious “one best way” o Groups enforced low productivity norms on members o Overall impression: “happy workers are more productive”
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MGMT notes - Chapter One: Management and Organizations Two...

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