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Exam Two Review - Chapter 7 Qualitative Research...

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Chapter 7: Qualitative Research Qualitative Research involves collecting, analyzing, and interpreting data that cannot be meaningfully quantified, that is, summarized in the form of numbers o Exploratory research o Initial understanding of the problem and context o Generates hunches or hypotheses to be tested further o Small samples Quantitative o Conclusive research o Structured o Specific data capable of suggesting final course of action o Large, more representative samples Chapter 8: Experimentation in Marketing Research Descriptive vs. Experimental Research Descriptive Research o Describes outcomes o Data about population o Who, what, when, where, how o Systematic description Experimental Research o Causal o Manipulates independent variables o Researcher controls experimental variables Marketing Experiment Experiment: we manipulate one or more independent variables o Control all other variables that could cause changes in dependent variables o We collect data on the DV (“effect” variable) Theoretically – Researcher has complete control and causality can be determined Practically – complete control is rarely possible Correlation does NOT imply causation Examples Advertising experiment Will replacing commercial A with commercial B lead to a marked increase in consumer preference for a company’s brand? Independent: commercial type Dependent: consumer preference Shelf space experiment Will decreasing the shelf space allocated to brand X detergent by 25 percent significantly lower its sales? Independent: shelf space Dependent: sales
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Direct Mail Experiment Will it be worthwhile to mail to last year's donors an attractive (but expensive) brochure describing the company’s activities and soliciting higher contributions for this year? Independent: brochure Dependent: contributions Sales Productivity Example Will an increase in the average number of sales calls per customer from six to eight per year significantly improve sales? Independent: sales calls Dependent: sales Inferring Causality 3 Conditions: o Temporary ordering of variables o Evidence of association o Control of other causal factors All three must be met before the causality between X (cause) and Y (effect) can be established 2 Experimental Types Laboratory o Contrived setting o Effects of all (or nearly all) influential but irrelevant independent variables are minimized o STRENGTHS: Internal validity (x y) Time (much less than field) Cost (<$) Small exposure to competition Field o Natural environment o Conditions controlled as much as situation permits o STRENGTHS : External validity (Dx Dy) Meaningfulness of manipulations More control in a laboratory setting than a field setting Deciding Which Type of Experiment to Use Practical considerations o Time o Cost o Exposure to competition o Nature of the manipulation Test Marketing Form of field experimentation
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