08-Models - Conceptual Models 1 Models A model of a system...

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1 1 Conceptual Models 2 Models ± A model of a system is a way of describing how the system works Its constituent parts and how they work together to do what the system is supposed to do ± Implementation models Pixel editing vs. structured graphics ± Interface models
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2 3 Models in User Interface Design ± Three models are relevant to UI design System model (or implementation model) Interface model (or manifest model) User model (or conceptual model) System model User model Interface model 4 Interface Model ± Interface model should be Simple Appropriate: reflect user s model of the task (learned from task analysis) Well-communicated ± Interface model should hide the system model
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3 5 User Model ± User model may be wrong ± Sometimes harmless Electricity as water ± Sometimes misleading Thermostat as a valve 6 The Object-Action Interface (OAI) Model ± Simple direct manipulations applied to visual representations of objects and actions ± Syntactic aspects not eliminated, but minimized
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4 7 The OAI Model ± Object-action design Understand the task ± Real-world objects ± Actions applied to those object Create metaphoric representations of interface objects and actions Make interface actions visible to users 8 The OAI Model ± Because the syntactic details are minimal, users who know the task-domain objects and actions can learn the interface relatively easily ± It also reflects the higher level of design with which most designers deal when they use the widgets in GUI building tools ± The standard widgets have simple syntax and simple forms of feedback, leaving designers free to focus on how to create a business-oriented solution ± It is in harmony with the common software engineering method of object-oriented development (OOD)
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5 9 Task Hierarchies of Objects and Actions ± The primary way people deal with large and complex problems is to decompose them into several smaller problems, in a hierarchical manner, until each sub-problem is manageable ± People generally learn the task objects and actions independently of their implementation on a computer ± Designers who develop GUIs may have to take training courses, read workbooks, and interview users ± Users who must learn to use GUIs to accomplish real-world tasks must first become proficient in the task domain 10 Interface Hierarchies of Objects and Actions ± Like tasks, interfaces include hierarchies of objects and actions at high and low levels ± Interface actions are decomposable into lower- level actions Load a data file Insert into the data file Save the data file ± Save the file ± Save a backup of the file ± Apply access-control rights ± Overwrite previous version ± Assign a name
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08-Models - Conceptual Models 1 Models A model of a system...

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