Understanding CybersecurityCybersecurity is the method of protecting programs, networks, and systems from digital attacks. Cybersecurity includes technologies, processes, and controls.Generally, cyberattacks are intended at damaging, modifying, or accessing sensitive information; disrupting normal business processes; or extracting moneyfrom users.Office of Personnel Management in the US was hacked in April 2015, resulting in the theft of approximately 21.5 million personnel records. It is believed to be one of the most important historic violation.The data breach compromised on Personally Identifiable Information (PII) like Social Security Numbers, name, and address.Malicious programs or Malware are specifically designed to delete, block, modify, or disrupt the performance of computers and computer networks.Malwares include Viruses, Worms, Trojans, Spyware, Adware, Ransomware, and Scareware. Out of these, Viruses and Worms are two of the most familiar malicious programs.VirusVirus is a type of malicious software that can self-replicate and spread to other systems or hosts, eventually corrupting the systems.Requires an active operating system/active host program or an already-infected system to run and cause damage.Virus spreads easily to other hosts through some means, one of the frequent means being email attachment.WormUnlike virus, worm is a standalone software that does not need human help/host program to spread.Worms can advance and self-replicate within a system using up resources such as processing and memory.Enters the system through a vulnerability and attacks information-transport features/file-transport of the system.SpywareSpyware is designed to extract data from its host computer for marketing purposes. It then transmits that data to a remote system without the user's knowledge.AdwareAdware is similar to spyware, but it has been designed for advertising. Such as in a pop-up screen.Adware and Spyware are commonly known as Potentially Unwanted Program - PUP.A potentially unwanted program (PUP) is a software that can be considered as nonessential, whose implementation can compromise privacy or weaken the computer's security.RansomwareRansomware holds a system captive and demands a ransom to regain access.Ransomware restricts access to the computer either by encrypting files on the hard drive or by displaying messages that are meant to force the user to pay themalware creator to eliminate the restrictions and retrieve access to their system.ScarewareScareware tricks users by making them believe that their computer has been infected with a virus and then suggests to download and pay for fake antivirus software.
Usually, the virus is fictional, and the software is non-functional or malware itself.