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9781423902096_PPT_ch05 - C Programming From Problem...

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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition Chapter 5: Control Structures II (Repetition)
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 2 Objectives In this chapter, you will: Learn about repetition (looping) control structures Explore how to construct and use count- controlled, sentinel-controlled, flag-controlled, and EOF-controlled repetition structures Examine break and continue statements Discover how to form and use nested control structures
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 3 Why Is Repetition Needed? Repetition allows you to efficiently use variables Can input, add, and average multiple numbers using a limited number of variables For example, to add five numbers: Declare a variable for each number, input the numbers and add the variables together Create a loop that reads a number into a variable and adds it to a variable that contains the sum of the numbers
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 4 while Looping (Repetition) Structure The general form of the while statement is: while is a reserved word Statement can be simple or compound Expression acts as a decision maker and is usually a logical expression Statement is called the body of the loop The parentheses are part of the syntax
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 5 while Looping (Repetition) Structure (continued) Infinite loop : continues to execute endlessly Avoided by including statements in loop body that assure exit condition is eventually false
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 6 while Looping (Repetition) Structure (continued)
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 7 Designing while Loops
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 8 Case 1: Counter-Controlled while Loops If you know exactly how many pieces of data need to be read, the while loop becomes a counter-controlled loop
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 9 Case 2: Sentinel-Controlled while Loops Sentinel variable is tested in the condition and loop ends when sentinel is encountered
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 10 Telephone Digits Example 5-5 provides an example of a sentinel-controlled loop The program converts uppercase letters to their corresponding telephone digit
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 11 Case 3: Flag-Controlled while Loops A flag-controlled while loop uses a bool variable to control the loop The flag-controlled while loop takes the form:
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C++ Programming: From Problem Analysis to Program Design, Fourth Edition 12 Number Guessing Game Example 5-6 implements a number guessing game using a flag-controlled while loop The program uses the function rand of the header file cstdlib to generate a random number
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