lecture2-materials - Chapter 2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE STRUCTURE...

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hapter 2 Chapter TOMIC ATOMIC RUCTURE Dr. Mubarak ١ STRUCTURE
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Outline 1 Review of Atomic Structure ectrons, Protons, Neutrons Electrons, Protons, Neutrons Atomic Bonding in Solids eriodic Table Periodic Table Primary Interatomic Bonds condary Bonding (Van der Waals) Secondary Bonding (Van der Waals) 2 Molecules and Molecular Solids Dr. Mubarak ٢
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Review of Atomic Structure What are atoms? Atoms are the basic building blocks of matter that make up everyday objects. ٣ Dr. Mubarak
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The nucleus is the massive center of the atom. It was iscovered in 911 ut it took scientists another 1 discovered in 1911, but it took scientists another 21 years of experimenting to identify its parts. ٤ Dr. Mubarak
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٥ Dr. Mubarak
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Charges: Electron’s and Proton’s charges are of the same magnitude, 1.6 × 10 19 Coulombs. Masses: Protons and Neutrons have the same mass, 1.67 × 10 24 g. Mass of an electron is much smaller, 9.11 × 10 34 g and can be neglected in calculation of atomic mass. ٦ Dr. Mubarak
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٧ Dr. Mubarak
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ientists thought there was Scientists thought there was nothing smaller than the proton the nucleus of the atom in the nucleus of the atom Scientists discovered the eutron in 932 They neutron in 1932. They thought that there was othing smaller in the atom’s nothing smaller in the atom s nucleus? ٨ Dr. Mubarak
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In 1968, scientists discovered ew particles inside the new particles inside the proton. They called these articles quarks particles quarks. There are three quarks in each proton. The quarks are held to each other by other particles called gluons. Dr. Mubarak ٩
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Electrons are extremely small and very light. It is easy strip electrons off of atoms and use them for to strip electrons off of atoms and use them for electrical power and in devices like television sets. Electrons can be used to probe inside of atoms. Higher energy electrons can etect smaller features inside of atoms detect smaller features inside of atoms. Scientists learn about the inside of atoms by watching how electrons bounce off the atom, and by how the atom changes as a result of being hit by an electron. Dr. Mubarak ١٠
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Atomic Mass Units The atomic mass unit (amu) is often used to express omic weight. atomic weight. 1 amu is defined as 1/12 of the atomic mass of the most mmon isotope of carbon atom that has rotons (Z= common isotope of carbon atom that has 6 protons (Z 6) and 6 neutrons (N=6). roton M eutron = 7 0 24 = u. M proton neutron 1.67 x 10 g 1 amu. The atomic mass of the 12 C atom is 12 amu. tomic Weight Atomic Weight e atomic weight of an element = weighted average of The atomic weight of an element = weighted average of the atomic masses of the atoms naturally occurring otopes Atomic weight of carbon is 2 11 u Dr. Mubarak ١١ isotopes. Atomic weight of carbon is 12.011 amu.
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The atomic weight is often specified in mass per mole.
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course CHEMICAL E 0905326 taught by Professor Yousefmobarak during the Spring '11 term at University of Jordan.

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lecture2-materials - Chapter 2 ATOMIC STRUCTURE STRUCTURE...

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