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Unformatted text preview: FM 3-3 Chapter 3 Chemical Agents Avoidance of chemical agents requires a complete understanding of physical characteristics, employment, and weather and terrain conditions. Units can then estimate when and where specific type of chemical agents will be used, where the hazards are, and how best to avoid them . Threat forces are equipped, structured, and trained to conduct chemical operations. We expect them to use chemical agents as part of their conventional fighting capability because so much of their training revolves around the use of such agents. The basic threat principle is to use chemical agents on unprotected troops to create casualties. Against protected troops, the primary purpose is to make the use of equipment, terrain, and operations more difficult. The use of chemical weapons by the threat forces initially may require a decision at the same level as nuclear weapons. But they most likely will be used more freely once the initial use has been authorized. Threat forces consider chemical weapons as an extension of conventional warfare. If units understand the uses of chemical agents, they will be better able to avoid chemical hazards. Types of Chemical Agents Chemical agents may be classified persistent, nonpersistent and dusty. Threat forces classify chemical agents according to their effect on the body. They identify six major types—nerve, blood, blister, choking, psychochemical, and irritants. Persistent Threat forces are known to stockpile persistent and nonpersistent agents. Persistent agents are used to impede the use of critical terrain, channelize the attacking force, or contaminate materiel. Persistent chemical agents are used to produce casualties (immediate or delayed). Immediate casualties occur when the soldier inhales the vapor. Delayed casualties occur and is absorbed through the skin demonstrating the need for protective equipment. Persistent agents are used to— Contam inate rear area supply depots. Defend avenues of approach. Neutralize personnel defending a strong point. Protect flanks. Degrade unit efficiency, To avoid persistent agents- contamination which may be persistent for several days Avoid areas heavily splashed with liquid (depending on weather and type of agent). See FM 3-6 for more details. Cover personnel, equipment, and supplies whenever possible. Monitor for the chemical agent for 2 to 10 days (depending on weather and type of agent). See FM 3-6 for more details. Concentrate on finding clean areas and routes (recon units). Cross contam inated areas in MOPP 4. Mark contam inated areas. Avoid contact with unknown liquids. Nonpersistent Threat forces currently stockpile blood agents, choking agents, psychochemical agents and nerve agents such as Tabun (GA), Sarin (GB), and Soman (GD). Although G-series nerve agents (GA, GB, GD and GF) are classified as nonpersistent agents, some G agents may persist for hours to days. Refer to Table 1-2 in Chapter 1 of this Field Manual or FM 3-4 for persistency data....
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2011 for the course CHEM 120 taught by Professor Levy during the Fall '10 term at Rutgers.
- Fall '10