Christian%20Reform%20and%20Crusades

Christian%20Reform%20and%20Crusades - Christian Reform and...

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Christian Reform and Crusades
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Questions: 1. In what ways was the Christian church weakened by the end of the 9 th century? 2. How did reform begin, first at the monastery of Cluny and then within the papacy itself? 3. What was the “Investiture Controversy” between pope and emperor and who won? 4. What was the motivation for the Crusades and how did it affect relations between Christians and Muslims and between the Byzantine empire and Western Europe?
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I. Corruption of the Church Weakness and corruption of Church after 9 th century invasions Papacy controlled by Roman factions Bishops and abbots as feudal vassals Priests appointed by local lord Rules on celibacy and monastic codes often flouted
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II. A. Beginnings of Reform at Cluny - monastery of Cluny established 910 - free from feudal control - reform of monastic life: more time in prayer, right to elect abbot - establishment of hundreds of Clunaic monasteries across Europe - model of Cluny followed in other orders St Odo, 2 nd abbot of Cluny
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II B. Papal Reform Influence of Cluny on popes of mid-11 th century Pope Leo IX (1049-1054) creates body of cardinals to reform church 1054, break with eastern Christian church 1059, Decree of Pope Nicholas II: cardinals elect pope 1074, Decree of Pope Gregory VII against simony and clerical marriage
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Papal Decree of 1074 Those who have been advanced to any grade of holy orders, or
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Christian%20Reform%20and%20Crusades - Christian Reform and...

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