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Unformatted text preview: The Rise of Constitutional Monarchy in Britain The Questions: 1. What was the longterm background for the emergence of constitutional monarchy in England? 2. How and why did the political and religious attitudes of the Stuart kings (James I and Charles I) provoke revolt? 3. After military dictatorship and recalling a Stuart (Charles II) to power, why did the English elite turn to William and Mary in the “Glorious Revolution” of 1688? What was so “glorious” about this revolution? 1. The Background 1. Legal: Parliament: Magna Carta, 13th c. – a feudal document; crown must live within law Origins of Parliament in meetings of barons and church leaders: “parlays”, by 14th c. right to consent over taxation 2. Religious: Reformation from above by Henry VIII; leaves church closer to Roman origins and some unsatisfied reformers Two factors combine under Henry VIII: Henry seeks approval from Parliament – strengthens their position 2. The Stuart Kings: James I (r. 16031625) James I (king of Scotland) inherits from childless Elizabeth I in 1603 (origin of Stuart dynasty) Inherits small homogeneous kingdom, but heavy wartime expenses and limited income Insistence on divine right Raises money outside Parliament and thereby angers Parliamentarians 30 Years War allows Parliament to reassert rights 1628 Charles forced to sign Petition of Right Charles does not call Parl’t from 1629 1640; instead uses extraordinary fiscal measures ie ship money Charles I II. Religious Conflict and Scottish Rebellion Archbishop William Laud imposes Common Prayer Book, causes revolt in Scotland (1637) 1640, Scottish invasion of England Charles forced to call Parliament in response; Parliamentarians demand reform, imprison Laud King resists – civil war breaks out in 1642 III. Civil War and Oliver Cromwell From 1642, civil war between king & Parliament 1645, Parliamentary victory, Charles imprisoned but refuses to compromise January 1649, Charles I executed by Rump Parliament 1653, Oliver Cromwell is “Lord Protector” Military dictatorship under Puritan leadership Dissolves after Cromwell’s death in 1658 Cavaliers vs. Roundheads Execution of Charles I His last words: "I have delivered my conscience; I pray God you do take those courses that are best for the good of the kingdom and your own salvation." Oliver Cromwell IV. Restoration and Glorious Revolution 1660, monarchy restored with Charles II 1685, Catholic James II inherits throne 1688, William of Orange and Mary take throne 1689, “Bill of Rights” 1690, John Locke, “Two Treatises of Civil Government” Restoration of Charles II William and Mary’s official coronation medal , 1689 On the reverse, James II, unable to manage the reins of government, is displaced. ...
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- Spring '08
- Oliver Cromwell