greece30 - GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND HELLENISM Key terms in...

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Unformatted text preview: GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND HELLENISM Key terms in lecture: Thales Anaximander Parmenides Plato “Perfect forms” Aristotle Philip II Alexander the Great Hellenism Hellenistic kingdoms Questions: How did Greek philosophers create a new tradition of rational philosophy of the universe and human society? Why did the Greek city­states succumb to invasion and how did Alexander the Great conquer a vast area in his short lifetime? How was Greek culture spread throughout Alexander’s empire in the Hellenistic period? I. The Legacy of Greek Philosophy ­ philosophy = “love of wisdom” ­ rational inquiry into nature and human society, based on reason, logic observation not divine or supernatural forces Ionian philosophers: Thales (625­547 BC): water as fundamental substance Anaximander (610­527 BC): the Boundless, then process of evolution creates life as we know it Parmenides (515­450 BC): eternal unchanging universe beneath appearances of change Plato (427­347 BC), • Search for ideal political form as response to troubles of poleis • Realm of “Perfect Forms”; everything on earth is imperfect copy of forms • The Republic calls for philosopher­kings to lead society; people are “gold”, “silver” or “bronze”; anti­democratic Aristotle (384­322 BC) • Greatest pupil of Plato; very wide range of studies • Rejects ideal forms for philosophy rooted in nature • Essential forms contained within each object • Defines humans as “political animals”; studies constitutions of poleis to find ideal • Advocates balance between oligarchy and democracy II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336Alexander 323 BC) II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC) Alexander Macedonia: north of Greece, Greek­speaking, considered uncivilized hinterland by classical Greeks 338 BC, Philip II of Macedonia conquers divided Greece 336 BC, his son Alexander inherits empire This head of Alexander from Pergamum, in marble, was probably executed during the reign of Eumenes II (197­ 159), and based on an original made during Alexander's lifetime. Roman copy of a Greek original possibly by Lysippos, Alexander's official sculptor. Unlike other idealized images of Alexander, this look likes a portrait from life. This statue is now in the Louvre in Paris, France. A silver teradrachm coin minted late in Alexander's reign. This coin is an "official" portrait, produced in large numbers. ­ 331 BC, defeat of Darius, conquest of Persepolis Alexander Mosaic, copy of original mosaic from 300BCE, found in Pompeii in 1831 Darius Alexander II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC) Alexander ­ 338 BC, Philip II of Macedonia conquers divided Greece ­ 336 BC, Alexander inherits empire ­ 331 defeat of Darius, Persian emperor, conquest of Persepolis ­ 323 BC, Alexander’s death in Babylonia Hellenism ­ c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy III. Hellenism III. Hellenism ­ c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy ­ cities run by Greek elite for kings III. Hellenism III. Hellenism c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy cities run by Greek elite for kings spread of Greek language and culture in Near East Greek ruins at Ay Khanum, Afghanistan Greek mosaic in Ay Khanum, Afghanistan ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/21/2011 for the course HIST 141 taught by Professor Fraser,e during the Spring '08 term at University of Illinois, Urbana Champaign.

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