Unformatted text preview: GREEK PHILOSOPHY AND HELLENISM Key terms in lecture: Thales Anaximander Parmenides Plato “Perfect forms” Aristotle Philip II Alexander the Great Hellenism Hellenistic kingdoms Questions: How did Greek philosophers create a new tradition of rational philosophy of the universe and human society? Why did the Greek citystates succumb to invasion and how did Alexander the Great conquer a vast area in his short lifetime? How was Greek culture spread throughout Alexander’s empire in the Hellenistic period? I. The Legacy of Greek Philosophy philosophy = “love of wisdom” rational inquiry into nature and human society, based on reason, logic observation not divine or supernatural forces Ionian philosophers: Thales (625547 BC): water as fundamental substance Anaximander (610527 BC): the Boundless, then process of evolution creates life as we know it Parmenides (515450 BC): eternal unchanging universe beneath appearances of change Plato (427347 BC),
• Search for ideal political form as response to troubles of poleis • Realm of “Perfect Forms”; everything on earth is imperfect copy of forms • The Republic calls for philosopherkings to lead society; people are “gold”, “silver” or “bronze”; antidemocratic Aristotle (384322 BC)
• Greatest pupil of Plato; very wide range of studies • Rejects ideal forms for philosophy rooted in nature • Essential forms contained within each object • Defines humans as “political animals”; studies constitutions of poleis to find ideal • Advocates balance between oligarchy and democracy II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336Alexander 323 BC) II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC) Alexander Macedonia: north of Greece, Greekspeaking, considered uncivilized hinterland by classical Greeks 338 BC, Philip II of Macedonia conquers divided Greece 336 BC, his son Alexander inherits empire This head of Alexander from Pergamum, in marble, was probably executed during the reign of Eumenes II (197 159), and based on an original made during Alexander's lifetime. Roman copy of a Greek original possibly by Lysippos, Alexander's official sculptor. Unlike other idealized images of Alexander, this look likes a portrait from life. This statue is now in the Louvre in Paris, France. A silver teradrachm coin minted late in Alexander's reign. This coin is an "official" portrait, produced in large numbers. 331 BC, defeat of Darius, conquest of Persepolis Alexander Mosaic, copy of original mosaic from 300BCE, found in Pompeii in 1831 Darius Alexander II. Philip II of Macedonia and II. Alexander the Great (r. 336-323 BC) Alexander 338 BC, Philip II of Macedonia conquers divided Greece 336 BC, Alexander inherits empire 331 defeat of Darius, Persian emperor, conquest of Persepolis 323 BC, Alexander’s death in Babylonia Hellenism c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy III. Hellenism III. Hellenism c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy cities run by Greek elite for kings III. Hellenism III. Hellenism c. 275 BC establishment of three Hellenistic kingdoms: Seleucid Monarchy, Ptolemaic Monarchy, Antigonid Monarchy cities run by Greek elite for kings spread of Greek language and culture in Near East Greek ruins at Ay Khanum, Afghanistan Greek mosaic in Ay Khanum, Afghanistan ...
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- Spring '08
- The Republic, Philip II of Macedon, Hellenistic Kingdoms