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Unformatted text preview: Life in the Roman Empire and the Transformation of the Late Empire Transformation
Key Words: Julio-Claudian dynasty Flavian dynasty Antonine dynasty Centurion Citizenship Edict of Antoninus Slavery Spartacus Diocletian Background Background - Julio-Claudian dynasty (30 BC-68 AD) Followers of Augustus; create imperial Followers bureaucracy bureaucracy 69 BC “Year of the Four Emperors” - Flavian dynasty (69 AD-96 AD) - Antonines, the “Five Good Emperors” (96 Antonines, -192 AD) -192 Questions Questions How was the Roman Empire administered How and controlled? and How was Rome a “slave society” and what How were the conditions of slavery? were How did the empire emerge transformed How from the crises of the 3rd Century? from Administration of Empire Administration A. The Roman Army B. Provincial Administrators C. Citizenship D. Role of cities and towns A. The Roman Army A. Most troops concentrated on fringe of Most empire empire At end of Augustus’ reign: 25 legions of At 6,000 men 6,000 Composed of “centuries” of 100 men, led Composed by centurion by Enrollment limited to citizens, although Enrollment auxiliary units of noncitizens B. Provincial administrators B. Provinces administered by governor and Provinces small staff small Used local elite to collect taxes and help Used run province run System helped to integrate provincial System elites into empire elites C. Citizenship C. Romans don’t try to impose their culture on Romans diverse peoples, but saw themselves as keepers of law and order of Borrowed idea of citizenship from Greeks: landowning, free men, born in polity, entitled to vote, owning, pay taxes, serve in army pay At first distinguishes those who live in Rome At from those outside; but extended to allies in Italy and then beyond and 212 AD “Constiutio Antoniniana” Emperor Constiutio Caracalla bestows citizenship on all free people in empire in Toga, toga, toga Toga, D. Role of Cities and Towns D. New cities and towns created at New settlements of veterans and around forts settlements Growth of Roman cities in West Growth (Marseilles, Lyon, Paris, Brussels, London, Vienna, Cordoba, Cologne) with amphitheaters, baths, roads, aqueducts amphitheaters, Merging of Roman with local traditions Merging creates new culture creates Cities cont’d. Cities Eastern provinces: already many cities Eastern from Hellenistic period from In East, cities maintain Greek culture and In education (ie Alexandria founded in 331 BC by Alexander the Great) BC II. Slavery II. From 2nd C. BC, Rome is “slave society”: 35% of population enslaved; economic production dominated by slaves production Sources of slaves: war, debt, birth, trade Most imp’t source is prisoners of war Most enslaved en masse in wars of conquest enslaved Slavery cont’d Slavery Not based on race or ethnicity Slaves are property of owner; no legal Slaves restraint on masters’ treatment of them restraint Very wide range of occupations performed Very by slaves Revolt hampered by brutality of Revolt punishments and by diversity among slaves (73 BC revolt led by Spartacus) slaves Left, female mistress dressed by slaves; right, slaves serving at a banquet Roman relief showing master punishing a slave Roman slave collar Crises of 3 Century Crises
rd Economic: cost of army of 350,000-400,000 Economic: men; devaluation of currency and inflation; stagnant trade and agriculture stagnant Political: army takes over role of creating Political: emperors, loyal to commanders not state emperors, External threats: invasions from multiple fronts, External especially Germanic tribes along Rhine especially Social: suffering of ordinary people and Social: provincial elite who have to make up tax shortfall provincial Diocletian’s Response Diocletian’s Military man from Dalmatia (Croatia), rises Military through ranks to become emperor through Instead of “princeps” is “dominus” (lord) Instead and encourages imperial cult and Divides empires into western and eastern Divides half half Each ruled by an augustus and a caesar Each (senior and junior emperor) for better administration and regular succession administration ...
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- Spring '08