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medieval.commerce - Changing Daily Life and Commerce in the...

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Changing Daily Life and Commerce in the High Middle Ages
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Carcassonne, France
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Questions: • 1. How did growth in agriculture and  population prepare the revival of trade and  commerce? • 2. What was the “commercial revolution” of  the 12th and 13th c. and where did it begin? • 3. How did the growth of towns change  Europe?
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I. Medieval Attitudes to Work  and Money • - work as punishment for Fall of Adam and Eve • - aim of economy is subsistence not growth • even nobles consume or give away surplus instead  of accumulating: gift economy • - Christian ban on usury: lending with interest  often consigned to Jews
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II.  Agricultural Revolution • New technology: water or wind powered mills,  heavy plow, collar harness for horses to pull plow,  horseshoes • Three field system: instead of  ½  land fallow, only  1/3 so improved crop rotation • Population growth: from 22.5 million in 950 to 
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