Module 44 - Module 44 PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES Psychotherapy...

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Module 44 PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES Psychotherapy is used to describe all forms of treatment in which a trained professional uses psychological techniques to help persons in need of assistance o Comes in many different forms Clinical psychology Psychiatry Counseling psychology Psychiatric social work Four major approaches o Psychoanalytic, behavioral, cognitive, humanistic Psychoanalytic therapies Patient sits on a couch and talks with an “analyst” Orthodox psychoanalysis Josef Breuer worked with Anna O. o Discovered that when Anna talked about herself, she sometimes stumbled upon memories that had been repressed for many years o These insights often brought about a relief of her symptoms o Anna became intensely attached to Breuer eventually causing him, a married man, to terminate their sessions Psychoanalysis is the first systematic method of “talking cure” o Designed to achieve two goals Catharsis A release of bottled-up psychic tension Insight Self-understanding o Goals are reached through psychologists interpretation of three types of behavior Free association, resistance, and transference Free Association Freud came up with new set of rules for talking o Follow your own train of thought and say whatever comes to mind o Marked the first use of free association Backbone of psychoanalysis Patient lies back, relaxes, and talks about thoughts, wishes memories, fantasies, physical sensations, dreams, and whatever else comes to mind Freud said the dreams you remember in the morning are well-disguised expressions of deep, hidden impulses o Patient describes the conscious manifest content of dreams o Analyst tries to unmask the underlying latent content of what the dream
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really means Resistance Patients don’t talk about unpleasant thoughts and memories o On the brink of an important but painful insight, patients would stop, go blank, lose their train of thought, change the subject, argue with the therapist, “forget” the next appointment, make jokes, call it quits, or seek another therapist o This pattern of avoidance is called resistance Unconscious defensive process designed to keep threatening personal insights out of awareness Resistance is a double-edged sword o Slows down the course of therapy and may even bring it to a grinding halt o Signals that the patient is on the verge of exposing a psychic raw nerve and that therapy is moving in the right direction Transference Freud speculated that people have an unconscious tendency to transfer feeling for parents, siblings, lovers, and other significant persons onto the therapist o Phenomenon called transference o Positive transference Passionate love and affection o Negative transference Hatred, anger, and hostility Transference is a welcomed disruption in psychoanalysis o May slow down and complicate matters o Provides a window to the unconscious Brief psychoanalytic therapies Most psychoanalytic therapists today use modified, unorthodox methods
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Module 44 - Module 44 PSYCHOLOGICAL THERAPIES Psychotherapy...

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