lecture_2 - University of Houston BCHS 3304: General...

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University of Houston BCHS 3304: General Biochemistry I, Section 07553 Spring 2003 1:00-2:30 PM Mon./Wed. AH 101 Instructor: Glen B. Legge, Ph.D., Cambridge UK Phone: 713-743-8380 Fax: 713-743-2636 E-mail: glegge@uh.edu Office hours: Mon. and Wed. (2:30-4:00 PM) or by appointment 353 SR2 (Science and Research Building 2) Research Interests: Molecular mechanisms of cell adhesion, using primarily multi- dimensional nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy. 1
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Lecture 1 Summary Life arose from simple organic molecules Compartmentalization gave rise to cells All cells are either prokaryotic or eukaryotic Eukaryotic cells contain membrane-bound oragnelles Three domains based on phylogeny Archea, bacteria, and eukarya Natural selection directs evolution
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Thermodynamics and chemical equilibria Lecture 2 1/15/2003 Chapter 1 Voet, Voet and Pratt
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Thermodynamics: Allows a prediction as to the spontaneous nature of a chemical reaction: Will this reaction proceed in a forward direction as the reaction is written: A + B C Will A react with B to form C or not? Is this reaction going from higher to lower energy? ENERGY not necessarily just heat!!!
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Definitions: System : a defined part of the universe a chemical reaction a bacteria a reaction vessel a metabolic pathway Surroundings : the rest of the universe Open system : allows exchange of energy and matter Closed system : no exchange of matter or energy. i.e. A perfect insulated box .
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Units
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Direction of heat flow by definition is most important . q = heat absorbed by the system from surroundings If q is positive reaction is endothermic system absorbs heat from surroundings If q is negative exothermic system gives off heat. A negative W is work done by the system on the surroundings i.e expansion of a gas
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First Law of Thermodynamics: Energy is Conserved Energy is neither created or destroyed. In a chemical reaction, all the energy must be accounted for. Equivalence of work w and energy (heat) q Work ( w ) is defined as w = F x D (organized motion) Heat ( q ) is a reflection of random molecular motions (heat)
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U = U final - U initial = q - w Exothermic system releases heat = -q Endothermic system gains heat = + q U = a state function dependent on the current properties only. U is path independent while q and w are not state functions because they can be converted from one form of energy to the other. (excluding other forms of energy, e.g. electrical, light and nuclear energy, from this discussion .)
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withdrew $50, now I have $50. I could have added $100 and withdrew $150. U (money in the account) is same but the
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lecture_2 - University of Houston BCHS 3304: General...

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