lecture_21a - Glycolysis 5/9/03 Glycolysis The conversion...

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Glycolysis 5/9/03
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Glycolysis The conversion of glucose to pyruvate to yield 2ATP molecules 10 enzymatic steps Chemical interconversion steps Mechanisms of enzyme conversion and intermediates Energetics of conversions Mechanisms controlling the Flux of metabolites through the pathway
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Historical perspective Winemaking and baking industries 1854-1865 Louis Pasture established that microorganisms were responsible for fermentation. 1897 Eduard Buchner- cell free extracts carried out fermentation no “vital force” and put fermentation in the province of chemistry 1905 - 1910 Arthur Harden and William Young inorganic phosphate was required ie. fructose-1,6- bisphosphate zymase and cozymase fractions can be separated by diaylsis
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Inhibitors were used. Reagents are found that inhibit the production of pathway products, thereby causing the buildup of metabolites that can be identified as pathway intermediates. Fluoride- leads to the buildup of 3-phosphoglycerate and 2-phosphoglycerate 1940 Gustav Embden, Otto Meyerhof, and Jacob Parnas put the pathway together.
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1. Add phosphoryl groups to activate glucose. 2. Convert the phosphorylated intermediates into high energy phosphate compounds. 3. Couple the transfer of the phosphate to ADP to form ATP. Stage I A preparatory stage in which glucose is phosphorylated and cleaved to yield two molecules of glyceraldehyde-3- phosphate - uses two ATPs Stage II glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate is converted to pyruvate with the concomitant generation of four ATPs-net profit is 2ATPs per glucose. Glucose + 2NAD + 2ADP +2P
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lecture_21a - Glycolysis 5/9/03 Glycolysis The conversion...

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