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Unformatted text preview: CHAPTER 6: GASES An Invisible Necessity we pay for fuel but not the oxidizer Chemical properties vs. physical properties Reactions to produce gases: 2 HgO (s) 2 Hg (l) + O 2 (g) CaCO 3 (s) CaO (s) + CO 2 (g) CH 2ONO 2 l CHONO 2 (l) 6 N 2 (g) + 12 CO 2 (g) + O 2 (g) l + H 2 O (g) CH 2ONO 2 Gases: volume changes with P volume changes with T miscible less dense than liquids, solids obs. consistent with picture of gases Units of pressure: mm Hg torr atm (1 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg) in SI Pascals 1 atm = 101,325 Pa psi and psig Measuring P: manometer The Gas Laws: Ideal Gases Observation: gases are compressible and entire industry is based on this Quantitative description of behavior of gases: pressure temperature volume n Boyles Law : effect of pressure on volume (T and n constant) First Von Guerickes Experiment: Magdeburg (1654) two eighthorse teams failed to pull apart two hemispheres joined by a vacuum into a sphere (d= ca. 20 inches) How do we measure P? manometer What Boyle (1627 1691) observed: How he treated the data: MATHEMATICAL STATEMENT: P 1/V or P = C B (1/V) [C B = a proportionality constant; value f (n and K) P 1 V 1 = P 2 V 2 = P 3 V 3 = constant for constant T and n Charles s Law : effect of T on volume (P and n constant) J. Charles (1746 1823): Effect of TEMPERATURE on the volume of a gas: but first: Josiah Wedgewood and temperature J. Charles data: MATHEMATICAL STATEMENT: V T V = C C T C C = proportionality constant; value f(n and P) V 1 /T 1 = V 2 /T 2 = V 3 /T 3 = constant for constant P and n Units of T? Kelvins . temp in K = temp in C o + 273.15 Avogadros Law : effect of n on V at constant T and P MATHEMATICAL STATEMENT: V n V = C A n C A = prop. constant; value f(T and P) Amontonss Law: relating P and T MATHEMATICAL STATEMENT: P T or P = constant (V and n fixed) T Put them all together, they spell the IDEAL GAS LAW PV = C B V/T = C C V/n = C A therefore: PV = (C B )(C A )(C C ) = R nT OR  PV = nRT R = gas constant = 0.0820578 lit atm/K mol = 0.08206 lit atm/K mol R = gas constant = 0....
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course CHEM 25 taught by Professor X during the Spring '06 term at Lehigh University .
 Spring '06
 x
 pH, Reaction

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