chapter%204 - CHAPTER 4 PROF. R.S. MILLER MILLER SPRING...

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CHAPTER 4 ROF R S MILLER PROF. R.S. MILLER SPRING 2009
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Earth: The Water Planet rth’s early atmosphere may have been formed ± Earth s early atmosphere may have been formed from the gases released by volcanic activity. th E th l d th i th t h ± As the Earth cooled the vapor in the atmosphere condensed and rain fell. This filled the depressions the planet’s crust in the planet s crust.
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olutions Solutions
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Solutions ± Solutions are homogeneous mixtures of two or more substances. ± The solvent is the substance in greatest quantity. ± Solutes are the other ingredients in the mixture. ± In aqueous solutions, water is the dissolving medium. ome properties of water: δ+ ± Some properties of water: Water is “bent” or V-shaped . ater is a molecular compound (covalent bonds) 104.5 o 2δ− Water is a molecular compound (covalent bonds). Water is a polar molecule. ydration ccurs when ionic compounds dissolve in water δ+ Hydration occurs when ionic compounds dissolve in water.
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n Ionic Compound CuCl in Water An Ionic Compound, CuCl 2 , in Water
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oncentration of Solute Concentration of Solute e amount of solute in a solution is The amount of solute in a solution is given by its concentration . Molarity ( M ) = olume of solution(L) Amount of solute ( mol solute ) Volume of solution(L) Concentration (M) = [ …]
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The Nature of a CuCl The Nature of a CuCl Solution: Ion Solution: Ion Concentrations Concentrations 2 CuCl 2 (aq) Cu 2+ (aq) + 2 Cl - (aq) If [CuCl 2 ] = 0.30 M, then [Cu Cu 2+ ] = 0.30 ] = 0.30 M & [ M & [Cl Cl - ] = 2 x 0.30 ] = 2 x 0.30 M. M.
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reparation of a Solution Preparation of a Solution Weigh the solid sample and add it to a volumetric flask. issolve the solid in the flask with a small amount of solvent Dissolve the solid in the flask with a small amount of solvent. Carefully fill to the mark with solvent.
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Example: A student dissolves 5.00 g of NiCl 2 •6 H 2 O in nough water to make 250 mL of solution Calculate the enough water to make 250 mL of solution. the molarity of the resulting solution. Step 1: Calculate moles of NiCl 2 •6H 2 O Step 2: Calculate molarity using solution volume
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Example: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you ant 00 mL of 0 50 NaOH What do you do? want 300. mL of 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do? Add water to the 3.0 M solution to lower its H 2 O concentration to 0.50 M In other words, dilute dilute the solution the solution! 0 M NaOH How much water is 3.0 M NaOH 0.50 M NaOH Concentrated Dilute necessary?
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Example: You have 50.0 mL of 3.0 M NaOH and you ant 00 mL of 0 50 NaOH What do you do? want 300. mL of 0.50 M NaOH. What do you do? moles of NaOH in ORIGINAL solution = moles of NaOH in FINAL solution C i • V i = C f • V f
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Preparing a Solution by Dilution
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Electrolytes trong nduct rrent efficiently Ex aqueous lutions Strong - conduct current efficiently. Ex: aqueous solutions of NaCl, HNO 3 ,HCl Weak - conduct only a small current. Ex: vinegar, tap water Non-electrolyte - A solution in which no ionization occurs.
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course CHEM 25 taught by Professor X during the Spring '06 term at Lehigh University .

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chapter%204 - CHAPTER 4 PROF. R.S. MILLER MILLER SPRING...

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