Chapter 3 slides

Chapter 3 slides - B iologyandBehavior (asrelatedtothe...

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Biology and Behavior (… as related to the  psychology of childhood) Chapter 3 Prepared by J. W. Taylor V  & C. Kirkman
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Overview Nature and Nurture Brain Development The Body: Physical  Growth and Psych  Development
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Nature and Nurture Genetic and Environmental Forces Behavior Genetics
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The Interplay of Heredity and Environment Both heredity and environment influence individuals’ characteristics When scientists first began to investigate the contributions of heredity and environment, they generally emphasized one factor or the other as the prime influence Recent efforts to map the human genome established that individuals differ from one another by less than… 1.5% of their genes!
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Model of Interaction Three key elements Genotype: The genetic material an individual inherits Phenotype: The observable expression of the genotype, including body characteristics and behavior Environment: Includes every aspect of the individual, and his or her surroundings, other than genes
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Fundamental Relations- some  examples of specific psychological  phenomena? 1. Parents’ genetic contribution to the child’s genotype 2. Contributions of the child’s genotype to his or her own phenotype 3. Contribution of the child’s environment to his or her own phenotype 4. Influence of the child’s phenotype on his or her environment
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Fundamental Relations Parents’ Genotype Child’s Genotype Child’s Environment Child’s Phenotype
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Relation between Parents’ and Child’s Genotypes Genetic material is passed on as chromosomes —long, threadlike molecules made up of DNA Carry all the biochemical instructions involved in the formation and functioning of an organism Genes are sections of chromosomes that are the basic units of heredity for all living things For reflection: Can any “psychological state”, or manner of fxning, be inherited?
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Genetic Origins of Human Diseases and Disorders In some cases, as with sickle-cell anemia, a gene can have both Deleterious effects: A debilitating blood disorder when both alleles (genetic derivatives) are present Benefits: Protection against malaria Many syndromes are known to have a genetic basis, but the specific genetic mechanism has not been established- examples?
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Polygenic Inheritance When traits are governed by more than one gene Applies to most traits and behaviors of interest to behavioral scientists
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Norm of Reaction (*reaction range and constraints) Refers to all the phenotypes that could theoretically result from a given genotype, in relation to all the environments in which it could survive and develop
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The Case of MAOA Young men who had experienced severe maltreatment were in
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course PSYCH 210 taught by Professor Kirkman during the Fall '10 term at CUNY Hunter.

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Chapter 3 slides - B iologyandBehavior (asrelatedtothe...

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