Psych 210. Chapter 8

Psych 210. Chapter 8 - Intelligenceand AcademicAchievement

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Click to edit Master subtitle style Intelligence and  Academic Achievement Chapter 8
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General Impressions of  Intelligence: l 1) simple skills of association l 2) problem-solving, reasoning, and judgment l 3) a focus on individual differences
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Intelligence…. l It is one of the human characteristics to which  we attribute the most significance, yet also  one of the most difficult to define. l How would you define Intelligence?
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The Study of Intelligence l Following Binet’s lead in 1904,  research on intelligence has focused on  individual differences l Research in this area raises many of the  most controversial issues about human  nature:  l The roles of heredity and environment l The influence of ethnic and racial  differences l The effects of wealth and poverty l The possibility of improvement
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Survey of Psychologists l Two major attempts to survey psychologists’ opinions  about the definition of intelligence were a 13-member  panel at a 1921 symposium and a 24-member panel at a  1986 symposium. l The definitions of intelligence at both symposiums  emphasized attributes such as adaptation to the  environment, basic mental processes, and higher-order  thinking (i.e. reasoning, problem solving, and decision  making).  l However, the 1986 symposium  placed more emphasis  on metacognition, executive processes, knowledge,  and the interaction between knowledge and context. 
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Click to edit Master subtitle style What Is Intelligence? Intelligence as a Single Trait Intelligence as a Few Basic Abilities Intelligence as Multiple Processes A Proposed Resolution
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Intelligence as a Single Entity l g (general intelligence) : intelligence common to  all intellectual tasks l measures of g correlate with l Indicators of school achievement l Information-processing speed l The speed of neural transmission  in the brain l Knowledge of subjects  not  studied  in school
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Intelligence as Multiple Entities l The simplest view of intelligence as multiple entities  holds that there are two types of intelligence:  l Crystallized intelligence:   Factual knowledge about the world l Fluid intelligence:   The ability to think on the spot to solve problems
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An Integrated  Model of Intelligence l John Carroll proposed an integration of competing views  of intelligence, the  three-stratum theory of intelligence
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Theorists’ definitions l Wechsler – The global and aggregate capacity of an 
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Psych 210. Chapter 8 - Intelligenceand AcademicAchievement

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