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Caribbean diasporas - ANNALS AAPSS 533 May 1994 CARIBBEA P5...

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ANNALS, AAPSS, 533, May 1994 Caribbean Diasporas: Migration and Ethnic Communities By ALEJANDRO PORTES and RAMON GROSFOGUEL ABSTRACT: Emphasis is on the five major insular migrations arriv- ing in the United States during this century: Cubans, Dominicans, Haitians, Jamaicans, and Puerto Ricans. We briefly examine the historical origins of these outflows, focusing on the role of shifting external hegemony over the reen and the resulticl iinF es in economic structure. The long relationship of the United States with its southern periphery has had the most diverse effects on these countries. In the case of the small Caribbean nations, a common pattern of U.S. hegemony interacted with very diverse colonial expe- rieriCea to produce different political and economic structures. The latter - have been reflected, in turn, in the chiiracter of Caribbean migration flows andlEi relative success of the ethnic communities that they spawned. Contrary to common stereotypes, numb-if-ants from the island-nations of_the region are not solely unskilled workers but comprise a diversified lot that includes entrepreneurs, profession- als, techniis, and skilled workers as well. CARIBBEA P5 small ru;. her Sniff anges. T however, could nil agrarian, she saw manufa convin to con East Si their ited S seine d Ara fli job in in the ' lives seven The she baigl invited hospi pared which bodega, the owner, reque ands in other that h ican after sition Vices solar" time Alejandro Portes is John Dewey Professor of Sociology and International Relations and chair of the Sociology Department at the Johns Hopkins University. He is coauthor (with Ruben G. Rumbaut) of Immigrant America: A Portrait (1990) and (with Alex Stepick) of City on the Edge: The Transformation of Miami (1993). Ram6n Grosfoguel was an adjunct assistant professor in the Department of Sociology at the Johns Hop- kins University during 1992-93. He is currently a postdoctoral fellow at the State University of New York, Binghamton. stain Wed 48
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49 ties GUEL rations arriv- 3, Dominicans, ( examine the ,ole of shifting ag changes in ed States with Teets on these ns, a common colonial expe- tructures. The of Caribbean c communities s, immigrants !killed workers in, profession- ernational Relations ersity. He is coauthor '990) and (with Alex Ram6n Grosfoguel v at the Johns Hop- 1 fellow at the State D ONA Marfa Reyes left Puerto Rico 35 years ago after living in a small rural town called Lares, where her family produced coffee and or- anges. The decline of agriculture, however, was such that her family could not continue depending on an agrarian income. Around this time,. she saw a newspaper ad announcing manufacturing jobs in New York and convinced her husband, Pedro Reyes, to contact his cousin on the Lower East Side to make arrangements for their arrival. Marfa and Pedro vis- ited San Juan for the first time the same day that they departed on a Pan Am flight to New York. Marfa's first job in New York was as an operator in the apparel industry Today she lives off welfare with four of her seven children in the South Bronx.
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