Schaefer, Native-Americans

Schaefer, Native-Americans - ( HE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF...

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Unformatted text preview: ( HE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF NORTH AMERICA WERE THE first to be subordinated by the Europeans. The Native Americans ho survived contact with the Non-Indian people usually were removed, often far away, from their ancestral homes. The U.S. government weakened tribal institutions through a succession of acts, beginning with the Allotment Act of 1887. Even efforts to strengthen tribal autonomy, such as the 7 1934 Reorganization Act, did so by encouraging Native Americans to adopt /White society's way of life. The modern period of Native AmericanNon-Indian i Atelations is much the same, as shown by such measures as the Termination and the Employment Assistance Program. Today, the pan- an movements speak for a diverse Native American people tik many needs: settlement of treaty violations, eco- nomic development, improved ducational programs, Elective health care, ligious and spiritual freedom, control over natural resources, and greater self-rule. The Native Americans U T L iN E (Irl n Furoi, l nnaa,l, I reatic ,mil .111. n 1, 'W H IR ; th e \A m e ric a n s Resert Rion I ilr and I -deral Policies loll, live t i1 v1 SmLieIYUn VAlin Am . II, RI SI ARCH I Ot UN Learning tAr NThojo Wu, IISI FN 10OUR VW ( l'S "1 he St alrcl and Ill y Since Bear" b e l m : Shunt y ink.11 b i l i n g 'I t 11,11 NJ , raeare n n he computer says "Zik" followed by 'Tax sep." This is not the latest space ad- venture from the local arcade but instead the words for "squirrel" and "eagle" as spoken by a Ho-Chunk elder. Preschoolers gather around the comI uter at a Head Start program Wisconsin. where Ho-Chunk children learn the language of their tribe. The Ho-Chunk. formerly known as the Winnebago tribe, are using modern technology to keep their language and therefore, their cub ruse Mive. The challenge is immense, as Two Bears, an anthropologist who works at the tribe's cultural center, obsenesi Tin was a whole reran% his the 1980s that didn't kninv a wort Taming g hat around will be a lrmg processwe figure ill take two years is advance ale language curriculom up one grube level the mhrron that Ho-chunk kids annul. intdapek 19%. 21 It is critical to use schools to restore the Ho-Cak language of the Ho-Chunk people. Only 350 of the 6,200 tribal members speak their language fluently. and none of them have young children of their own (Kozlowicz 2001). The concern of the Ho-Chunk tribal elders is also faced by most of the tribes in the United States. It is estimated that children are actively learning only 20 of the surviving 154 Native American languages. While mud, of the country debates the need for a larger percentage of new immigrants to master English. the first Americans' major concern is maintaining the tie to their linguistic past and making it a viable part of the present. In Chicago. adult siudents gather to learn the languages of their tribes. &alma and Ojibwee, and in Window Rock, Arizona. the 1996 Super Bowl was broadcast in Navajo for the first time. All these efforts and many more are aimed at maintainingNavajo for the first time....
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Schaefer, Native-Americans - ( HE ORIGINAL INHABITANTS OF...

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