The Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial PR

The Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial PR -...

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162 PART 3. EDUCATION bureau's leaders gave far too little attention to the single consideration that mat- tered most if the Philippines was ultimately to develop its handicraft sector: the size of the market for the items produced in the schools. Instead, they adopted a Field of Dreams approach to handicraft production: the students would make the items, and the buyers would magically come. But most of the time the imagined stream of buyers did not come of its own accord, and the bureau's efforts to cre- ate demand (through industrial exhibits in Manila, displays at international ex- positions, and the promotional work of its sales department) were unsurrmsful In the end, the bureau's industrial education program was more about activ- ity than accomplishment. There were many Kodak moments and too few sales of Philippine hats, baskets, and lace. Rather than a sucrmsful business enterprise, the bureau's industrial operations turned out to be a mammoth experiment in busywork. The Imperial Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial Puerto Rico PABLO NAVARRO-RIVERA EDUCATIONAL POLICIES AND PRACTICES in Puerto Rico, as a colony of both Spain (1493-1898) and the United States (since 1898), were formulated to serve the needs of the imperial enterprise. Education under Spain was one of limited schooling and a task charged to the Catholic Church. The United States, on the other hand, viewed state education as the most effective and efficient entity through which to undertake the colonization of Puerto Rico. Immediately after wresting Puerto Rico from Spain in 1898, the United States began opening schools throughout the country and importing teachers from different U.S. states. Puerto 'can teachers were trained in the educational ways of the conquering nation. Teacher-training programs were instituted and scholarships were approved by the ' colonial legislature to send Puerto Ricans to educational institutions in the con- tinental United States.' The wave of U.S. expansionism in the nineteenth century closely followed pattern set previously by the British Empire. Economic and military interests t drove the expansion were supported by theories of natural superiority and divine mandates or Manifest Destiny. However, the U.S. government did hot ado pt the general British practice of indirect government. The model of colonial governance instituted in Puerto Rico was closer to what the British would define et 'Crown colonies." In fact, the United States did not formally recognize that it colonies, preferring to use the term territories. The expansion to the Pacific and the Caribbean in 1898 signaled the emer- gence of the United States as an empire in the making. According to principal 'leadership elements in the United States, Puerto Rico was an economically and italitarily important country but was inhabited by inferior beings who needed to 'civilized" in order to maximize the potential benefits of the conquest. This the same evaluation that they made of Indians and blacks in the United 163
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course AFPRL 103 taught by Professor Melendez during the Spring '11 term at CUNY Hunter.

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The Enterprise and Educational Policies in Colonial PR -...

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