CHAPTER 3

CHAPTER 3 - CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: ORGANIC...

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CHAPTER 3 – THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: ORGANIC COMPOUNDS Organic compounds o Compound in which carbon atoms are covalently bonded to one another to form the backbone of the molecule CARBON ATOMS AND MOLECULES Hydrocarbons o Organic compounds consisting of only carbon and hydrogen Isomers have the same molecular formula but different structures Isomers o Compounds with the same molecular formulas but different structures and therefore different properties Structural isomers o Compounds that differ in the covalent arrangements of their atoms o The compound is arranged differently Geometric isomers o Compounds that are identical in the arrangement of their covalent bonds but different in the spatial arrangement of atoms or groups of atoms o The arrangement is the same, but the location of the groups of atoms changes Enantiomers o Isomers that are mirror images of each other Functional groups change the properties of organic molecules Hydrophobic o Insoluble in water and tend to cluster together Functional groups o Groups of atoms that determine the types of chemical reactions and associations in which the compound participates Hydrophilic o Associates strongly with polar water molecules Methyl group o Common nonpolar hydrocarbon group o R – CH_3 Hydroxyl group o Functional group that is polar because of the presence of a strongly electronegative oxygen atom o R – OH Carbonyl group o Carbon atom that has a double covalent bond with an oxygen atom o Double bond is polar because of the electronegativity of the oxygen o Aldehyde
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Carbonyl group positioned at the end of the carbon skeleton R – CHO o Ketone Carbonyl group positioned in the middle of the carbon skeleton R – CO – R Carboxyl group o Two forms; polar and ionic o Polar Consists of a carbon atom joined by a double covalent bond to an oxygen atom, and by a single covalent bond at another oxygen which is bonded to a hydrogen atom R – COOH o Ionic The hydrogen atom is stripped of its electron and released as a hydrogen ion R – COO- + H(+) Only a fraction of molecules ionize o Essential constituents of amino acids Amino group o Two forms; non-ionized and ionized o Non-ionized Nitrogen atom covalently bonded to two hydrogen atoms R – NH_2 Weakly basic because they can accept an H+ ion o Ionized Nitrogen atom covalently bonded to three hydrogen atoms R – NH_3(+) Phosphate group o R – PO_4H_2 o Weakly acidic o Hydrogens can be released causing ionized forms R – PO_4H_1(+) R – PO_4(2+) Sulfhydryl group o Atom of sulfur covalently bonded to a hydrogen atom
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This note was uploaded on 04/04/2008 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Martin during the Fall '08 term at Rutgers.

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CHAPTER 3 - CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF LIFE: ORGANIC...

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