Unformatted text preview: Diagnosing Diagnosing Organizations Organizations
Mgt. 413 Session 4 Process Consultation Process consultation based on idea that client is responsible for organization change Consultant plays many roles in organization change, but always in response to client needs and wishes Philosophy behind process consultation is one of helping and collaborating Consultant’s Continuum of Roles Task roles Process roles Direct involvement in problem solving Feedback Use of behavioral research Works to improve problem solving capability of organization and client Use of research from client organization as lever for change Consultant Can Change from NonDirective to Directive Roles Nondirective (client uses as sounding board/extra pair of hands) Collaborative roles: identifies alternatives and jointly solves problem Directive roles (consultant uses expertise to bring about change): trainer, technical expert, advocate Consulting Phases Initial contract or entry Formulating contract and helping relationship Problem identification and diagnosis Setting goals and planning for action Data collection, analysis, and feedback Decision to implement or not Contraction completion, support, termination Phase 1: Contract and Entry Identifying client and stakeholders: who owns problem? Who is affected? Clarify need for change Explore readiness for change: time, energy, funds, and commitment Explore possibilities for working together: contracting for who does what, what information is needed, where other resources can be obtained Phase 2: Formal Contracting for Phase Change Change Clarify specific outcomes to be reached Clarify specific responsibilities: client and consultant Identify time period for work, standards or outcomes to establish accountability Phase 3: Problem Identification and Phase Diagnosis Diagnosis “Presenting problem” versus actual conditions Involves checking out potential biases and filters—in both consultant and client Often based on models that describe “what is” and “what could be” Involves conducting multiple methods of research at various organizational levels and sample stakeholders Individual level Group level Interdepartmental level Intraorganizational level Social/technical environment Phase 4: Goal Setting and Planning Requires envisioning preferred and flexible future Involves planning for action and involvement: who, what, and how? Phase 5: Data Collection, Analysis, Phase and Feedback and Data collection and analysis usually occur simultaneously Feedback gathered from multiple sources of data: Feedback used in making diagnosis and keeping client informed Often seen as an intervention in itself: people are cued to change and expect things to be different Interviews: individuals and focus groups Observations Document analysis Surveys and questionnaires Decision to Continue or Terminate Decision Change Change Based on feedback May reveal hidden agendas Often involves joint problem solving, consultant technical expertise, and education Termination Phase Often accompanied by ongoing training in new system or particular intervention Client assumes more direct responsibility for change May involve periodic “maintenance” plan Diagnosis is Beginning of Change Lewin: everything/person tries to attain balance between forces driving change and those restraining it Developed “Force FieldAnalysis” What is status quo? How is it perceived? Are forces pushing for change greater than restraining ones? Change comes from unfreezing, moving, and re freezing Some Common Diagnostic Models Beckhard: GRPI (Goals, Roles, Practices, and Relationships) Bolman and Deal: Four Frames Model Galbraith: Star Model Weisbord: Six Box Model Six Box Model Examines 7 areas of where to look first for problems Purposes: in relation to environmental demands Structure: how organization put together to accomplish mission Relationships: how work and workers are coordinated Rewards: do they help fit organization goals and people’s efforts to attain them Helpful mechanisms: policies and procedures Leadership/management Organization environment: constraints and demands Star Model Structure: work organization and distribution of power Task: diversity, difficulty, variability People: selection, promotion, transfer, and development Information: decision making, frequency, formalization Rewards: leadership style, job design, compensation, promotability Four Frames Model: Seen Through Four Different Lenses Different Structural Frame Human Resource Frame Assumes rationality in how organization organized Examines roles, relationships, rules, policies Does structure adapt easily to situations? People key to organization effectiveness Thwarted human needs basis of problems Examines fit between people and organization Political Frame Symbolic Frame Examines how power is distributed Studies how scarce resources tied to conflict and use of power Studies cultural meanings: myths symbols, and rituals Problems occur when meaning lost Meaning necessary to survival and adaptation ...
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- Fall '09
- Management, consultant, Phase Change Change, organization change Consultant, problem Directive roles