Organizational Culture

Organizational Culture - Organizational Culture MGT 413...

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Unformatted text preview: Organizational Culture MGT 413 Session 6 1 Culture In General ► Peters and Waterman's In Search of Excellence,: "strong" cultures are more productive than "weak" ones. ► D'Andrade (1984) and Geertz: anthropological view: a pattern of symbols in discourse which are shared as common interpretations among people. ► Hofstede (1980): “Software of the mind” 2 Common Features of Cultures ► Help people define and shape reality as they experience it ► Shaped by collective ideas, experiences, and common world views . ► Provides viewpoints, methodologies, and particular tools and techniques for understanding and managing change 3 Purposes of Culture ► Edgar Schein (1984) notes culture has two main purposes: ► Survival: based on shared agreement: shared values core mission primary tasks functions ► Adaptation to environmental conditions 4 ► How to design, build, finance, and sell the product Culture Helps in Making Decisions or service of an organization ► How to measure results of activities in pursuit of goals ► How to repair damages ► How to communicate through a common language: use of symbols, for instance ► Criteria for admitting/discharging members ► Criteria for differentiation of influence and power ► Criteria for intimacy, friendship, and love ► Allocating rewards and punishments 5 Six General Characteristics of Organizational Culture (Hofstede) ► A. Process versus results orientation ► C. Parochial versus professional ► D. Open versus closed systems ► E. Loose versus tight control ► F. Normative versus pragmatic ► B. Employee­oriented versus job­oriented 6 Hofstede’s First 3 Dimensions ► Process versus results orientation: ► Employee­oriented versus job­oriented process: preference for means (process, or how things get done) versus ends results: take risks, foster innovation employee­oriented: concern for people's feelings and well­being job­oriented: exert strong pressures for conformity to meet production goals parochial: assesses people's identity to the organization professional: distinction between public and private lives 7 ► Parochial versus professional Hostede’s Last 3 Dimensions ► Open versus closed systems ► Loose versus tight control open: newcomers welcomed and assimilated fairly easily closed systems: newcomers carefully selected, require a long orientation period, and experience a "secretiveness" among insiders loose: one thinks of costs, meeting times are kept approximately, and jokes about the organization are frequent tight: people have strict, unwritten codes of dress and of formal behavior normative: advise following procedures over getting things done, have high moral standards, and perceive tasks toward outside worlds as implementation of inviolable rule Pragmatic:market­driven, emphasize results over process, and accept "whatever works in practice" as the operating ethic ► Normative versus pragmatic: 8 Transmitting Organizational Culture ► Organizational culture based on guiding values, beliefs, and practices of founders or top leaders ► Socialization: “learning the ropes” ► Narratives ► Rituals ► Material symbols 9 Organizational Culture is Difficult to Change ► Based on deeply­held assumptions ► Individuals develop assumptions, values, and beliefs very early in life ► Larger culture, through institutions of family, school, religions, and government, shape emerging individual systems ► Individuals largely unaware of assumptions, values and beliefs ► Individual’s hidden beliefs and values find reinforcement in social groups which may be shared with other social groups 10 Schein’s Cultural “Iceberg” Conscious Behaviors Social Group Modifications Assumptions, Beliefs, Values (unconscious) 11 ...
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