Unformatted text preview: Where Did OD Come Where From? From?
Session 1 MGMT 413 1 Three Similar Terms Organizational Change Organization Development Organizational Transformation Organizational 2 Organizational Change Is generic term: Includes the processes and structures that Includes result when individuals work toward some goal or accomplish some task in an organization organization May be systematic and planned or ad-hoc and May bottom up bottom Involves using individual and group processes Involves
3 Organization Development Is more precise than organizational change Has several common components Has planned, systematic planned, involves both human (social) and technical (resources) involves is usually driven from top downward to achieve particular is ends ends is based on behavioral science data is focused on problem solving with an aim at improving is effectiveness and efficiency effectiveness uses collaboration between consultant and client uses major emphasis areas are formal work teams, temporary major groups, and intergroup culture groups,
4 Organization Transformation Usually has many elements of organizational Usually development development But is long-term and involves re-founding But basic organizational assumptions, beliefs, and practices practices Whole organization is involved (think of Whole strategic planning) strategic 5 Eight Organization Development Eight Interventions (French and Bell) Interventions Emphasis on work team as basic unit for effective modes of organizational Emphasis behavior behavior Primary emphasis on group processes as basis for change rather than on Primary content of change itself content Use of action research model identification of problem or issue affecting group collaborative diagnosis through systematic data gathering, analysis, and collaborative reflection by people who are affected by problem reflection Use of data to develop change strategies Emphasis on collaboration (particularly in groups and teams) to achieve Emphasis change change Emphasis on management of group culture (also inter-group cultures) as it Emphasis affects total system affects View of change as on-going in constantly changing environment 6 History of Organization Development Difficult to pinpoint exact birthdate of OD Psychological beginnings were in Hawthorne Psychological Studies at the Western Electric Plant in 1930’s Studies Most researchers, however, cite the work of Most Kurt Lewin at the Research Center for Group Dynamics at MIT in the 1940’s as the first systematic study of OD systematic 7 Lewin’s T-Groups Lewin’s research in small groups led to seminars in Lewin’s which participants gave and received feedback on their own and others’ behaviors their Facilitators helped participants use the feedback as a Facilitators vehicle for personal change and growth Groups became known as T-Groups (T=”training”) became Groups focused on improving interpersonal Groups communications communications Organizations in the 1950’s and 1960’s used the TGroup model to improve overall productivity through Group communications communications
8 Influence of Dewey and Follett in T-Groups John Dewey: progressivism; democracy in education John Mary Follett: early supporter of integrative solutions Mary to organizational problems to T-groups focused on importance of helping groups T-groups and group leaders focus on interpersonal communications processes, particularly among leaders leaders Team building eventually emerged from T-groups 9 Uses of Survey Research and Feedback Uses In addition to the small group communications In processes in organizations, survey research played an important role in the development of OD OD Rensis Likert was prominent in this aspect was an agricultural economist who developed fivepoint scale for measuring attitudes point measuring along with Floyd Mann, developed use of feedback along from surveys to provide insights for change from
10 10 Action Research Role in OD Action Research had beginnings in using indigent peoples Action (Native Americans) to identify conditions they would like to change change Data from conditions became basis for causes, effects, and Data solution strategies solution Early leaders were W.R. Bion, who wrote particularly on the Early behavior of leaderless groups behavior AR got main thrust, however, from Eric Trist and Tavistock AR Group Group Eric Trist adapted Bion’s and Lewin’s work to the coal mines of Wales Trist also used concepts of systems from the works of Von Bertalanffy Trist (a biologist and contributor to Chaos Theory) (a
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- Fall '09
- Management, Organizational Change Organization, OD OD Rensis