4 Culture and Management Theories

4 Culture and Management Theories -...

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1 Intercultural Effectiveness in  Global Management Cross-Cultural Management Reading Set 4 Gosia A. Langa
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2 Culture Culture  is a set of assumptions and values that are  shared by a group of people Consists of general ‘shoulds’ and ‘oughts’ of life Guides that group of people’s interaction with each other Most readily seen in norms and practices such as language and  clothing but its influence is much deeper Two functions: To make actions more simple and efficient To provide a source of social identity for members Individuals within a culture are all different and subscribe to  culture’s assumptions and values to greater or lesser degree
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3 Assumptions and Perceptions Assumption :  unquestioned, taken-for-granted belief  about the world and how it works Perception :  what we notice and how we interpret events  and behaviors Assumptions influence perceptions, our interpretations of events  and behaviors, or the meaning that the events and behaviors  have for us Assumptions influence our own actions and what we think of  others’ actions The more shared the assumptions, the easier it is to  communicate – thus assumptions are generally effective when  operating within own culture
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4 How Culture Matters for Behavior?    Influences of  Culture -History -Language - Religion - Climate, etc. Culture Shared  assumptions  and values,  systematic,  learned Cultural  Institutions Educational  Social, legal, etc. Individual  Perceptions Describe Interpret Evaluate  Individual  Behavior
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5 What Happens When Cultures Meet? Same situation may be perceived, interpreted, and  evaluated differently and so different actions may be  taken Cognitive dissonance – uncomfortable feeling of  imbalance; occurs when assumptions are inconsistent  with perceptions We can change our perceptions to match the assumptions  (question the other) or We can change our assumptions to match the evidence  (question ourselves) The first happens more often than the second Differences in assumptions can be anticipated and errors in  perception can be avoided
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6 What Happens When Cultures Meet?   Cont’d Ethnocentrism :  tendency to see ‘us’ as better  and ‘them’ as worse Stereotyping others in negative ways is a result of this  attitude It is possible to become aware of own  assumptions and behaviors but this requires  exposure and willingness to change
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7 From Multiculturalism to Hybridization Multicultural approach :  cultures are perceived as 
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4 Culture and Management Theories -...

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