Test 2 - I. Lecture 6 History of media effects A. 1970s:...

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I. Lecture 6 History of media effects A. 1970s: moderate effects 1. More sophisticated theorizing a. Cognitive, conditional, and indirect 2. Major effects theories a. Tichenor, Donohue, and Olien (1970): Knowledge gap hypothesis b. The Surgeon General’s reports on televised violence and aggressive behaviors (1971) c. McCombs and Shaw (1972): Agenda-setting hypothesis d. Noelle-Neumann (1973): Spiral of Silence e. Gerbner (1970s): Cultivation f. Uses and gratifications (1970s) 3. The 1972 Report to the surgeon general found that a causal relationship exists between TV violence and aggression, but “any such causal relation operates only on some children (who are predisposed to act aggressively)” and “operates only in some environmental contexts.” 4. Dependency theory (Ball-Rokeach & DeFleur, 1976) states that the degree to which people depend on mass media information depends on several factors (e.g., amount of disorder or conflict in society) B. 1980s—Present: powerful effects 1. 1983 NIMH report on television and behavior concluded that TV violence is linked to societal violence a. “In magnitude, television violence is as strongly correlated with aggressive behavior as any other behavioral variable that has been measured.” 2. Viewing a 30 minute TV program has a significant effect on values (Ball- Rokeach e al. 1984). 3. Joint Statement (2001) on media violence C. Joint Statement (2001) 1. “The conclusion of the public health community, based on over 30 years of research, is that viewing entertainment violence can lead to increases in aggressive attitudes, values and behavior, particularly in children.” a. American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry b. American Academy of Pediatrics c. American Academy of family physicians d. American medical association e. American psychiatric association f. American psychological association D. Revisionist perspectives 1. Re-interpreting early studies a. Studies that indicate limited and powerful effects can be identified in every period b. Inclusion of past studies that do not fit the standard scenario 2. Re-reading the established history a. There was interest in indirect and conditional effects in powerful effects studies (The Payne Fund studies) b. Partial reading/interpretation of limited effects studies was pointed out 3. The people’s choice 1
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a. Beyond conversion b. Big impact of small effects c. Interpersonal effects overestimated The two-step flow of communication Media opinion leaders mass audiences 4. Effects of WWII films a. Significant impact on knowledge about foreign affairs b. Delayed effects 5. Re-reading the final verdict (Klapper) a. Possibility of strong media effects recognized b. Five generalizations (p. 53) II. Social cognitive theory A. Outline 1. Social (observational) learning theory 2. Social cognitive theory 3. Cognitive traits 4. Four component processes 5. Disinhibitory devices: Forms of self-exoneration B. Social (Observational) learning theory
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This note was uploaded on 02/23/2011 for the course COMM 102 taught by Professor Bushman during the Spring '08 term at University of Michigan.

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Test 2 - I. Lecture 6 History of media effects A. 1970s:...

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