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Chapter_1 - Chapter 1 Chapter Europe Part I Major...

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Unformatted text preview: Chapter 1 Chapter Europe Part I Major Geographic Qualities of Europe Europe Western extremity of the Eurasian landmass. Global political and economic domination Strong internal regional differentiation (cultural as well as physical). Major Geographic Qualities of Europe Europe Economies dominated by manufacturing. Productivity high. Nation­states emerged from durable power cores that formed the headquarters of world colonial empires. Rapidly aging population generally well off, highly urbanized, well educated, long life expectancies. Population declines in many European countries. Offset by immigration. Significant progress toward international economic integration and political coordination. Defining the Realm Defining 583 million people 39 countries Eastern boundary between Russia and it’s numerous European neighbors to the west. Locational advantage: efficiency for contact with the rest of the world. A peninsula of peninsulas Hundreds of miles of navigable rivers • System of canals, open the interior of Europe to its neighboring seas and waterways of the world Landscapes & Opportunities Landscapes Four broad Units: Central Uplands Southern Alpine Mountains Western Uplands North European Lowland Europe’s Physical Landscapes Europe’s Fig. 1-4, p. 43 Central Uplands Central Heart of Europe Region of hills and low plateaus Loaded with raw materials Farm villages grew into towns and cities when the Industrial revolution transformed the realm. The Alpine Mountains The Highland region named after the Alps. Extend from Pyrenees to Balkan Mountains near Black Sea. Include Italy’s Appennines And Eastern Europe’s Carpathians. Western Uplands Western Geologically older, lower, more stable than Alpine Mountains. Extend from Scandinavia through western Britain and Ireland. To the heart of the Iberian Peninsula. North European Lowland North From Southeast Britain and central France well into Russia. Known as the Great European Plain Avenue for human migration. Complex cultural and economic mosaics. Europe’s major rivers and connecting waterways serve this populations region. London, Paris, Amsterdam, Copenhagen, Berlin are located. North European Lowland North From the Field notes, p. 44 Europe’s Pre-Modern Heritage Europe’s Rise of its first great civilizations on the islands and peninsulas of Greece (Italy). Greece exposed to influences from advanced civilizations of Mesopotamia and the Nile Valley. Greeks laid foundation of European civilization. • Achievements in political science, philosophy, the arts, endured for 25 centuries. Europe’s Pre-Modern Heritage Europe’s 147 BC Romans had conquered Greek intercity leagues. Power shifted to Rome in present­day Italy. Roman empire from Britain to Persian Gulf. From the Black Sea to Egypt. Mediterranean was a Roman lake carrying armies to distant shores and goods to Rome. Urban population exceeding 1 million people Europe’s Pre-Modern Heritage Europe’s Rome founded numerous cities throughout their empire linked to the capital through a vast system of highway and water routes. • Infrastructure: foundations of a society: urban centers, transport networks, communcations, energy distribution systems, farms, mines, and other facilities such as schools, hospitals, postal services, police and armed forces Europe’s Pre-Modern History Europe’s Roman rule brought disparate, isolated peoples into the imperial political and economic sphere. Local functional specialization­ the production of particular goods by particular people in particular places. The Empire collapsed in the fifth century • Disorder ensued • Massive migrations • Germanic and Slavic peoples to present positions on European stage. • Arab­Berber Moors conquered Iberia and penetrated France. • Ottoman Turks invaded Eastern Europe Revival –Renaissance; 15 Century New continents and riches; mercantilism The Revolutions of Modernizing Europe Europe Agrarian Revolution: Growing markets for farmers. Changes in land ownership and agricultural methods. Improved farm practices, better equipment, superior storage facilities. More efficient transportation to urban markets. New crops from the new world. The Isolated State The Heinrich von Thunen Model of the location of productive activities in Europe’s farmland. Four zones or rings of land encircling the market center. Zone 1: Central City Zone 2: Intensive farming & dairying Zone 3: Forest Zone 4: Ranching and animal products. The Isolated State The Fig. 1-5, p. 46 Location Theory Location Von Thunen’s model became known as Location Theory: Model did not represent real Europe. Demonstrated the economic­geographic forces that shaped the new Europe • A logical attempt to explain the locational pattern of an economic activity and the manner in which its producing areas are interrelated. Industrial Revolution Industrial 1780’s James Watt & others Developed steam­driven engine Numerous industrial uses. Coal superior for smelting iron. Power loom revolutionize weaving. Britain and the Industrial Revolution Britain British influence reigned worldwide. Controlled flow of raw materials. Monopoly over products and skilled labor with worldwide demand. Manufacturing regions: densely populated and heavily urbanized developed near coalfields. Europe: Industrialization Europe: Fig. 1-7, p. 48 ...
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