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Europe Part II Political Revolutions Political Europe’s political revolution produced a form of political territorial organization known as the:
• Nationstate a country whose population possesses a substantial degree of cultural homogeneity and unity. Nation: Legally a term encompassing all the citizens of a state, it also has other connotations. Most definitions now tend to refer to a group of tightlyknit people possessing bonds of language, ethnicity, religion and other shared cultural attributes. Such homogeneity actually prevails in very few states. Political Revolutions Political Centrifugal forces: a term employed to designate forces that tend to divide a countrysuch as internal religious, linguistic, ethnic, or ideological differences. Centripetal forces: forces that unite and bind a country togethersuch as strong national culture, shared ideaological objectives and a common faith. Contemporary Europe Contemporary Exhibits only limited geographic homogeneity. IndoEuropean languages Spatial Interaction Spatial Interaction Complentarity:Two places, through an exchange of goods, can specifically satisfy each other’s demands. One area has a surplus of an item demanded by a second area. Germany Italy Complimentarity Complimentarity Transferibility Transferibility
The ease with which a commodity may be transported or the capacity to move a good at a bearable cost Rivers, Mountain Passes, Road networks Advances in transportation technology Intervening opportunity Intervening The presence of a The nearer source of supply or opportunity that acts to diminish the attractiveness of more distant sources and sites and Would Australian Would Beer be cheaper to import into Italy? import An Urbanized Realm An 73% of Europe’s population resides in cities and towns. Urbanization Related concepts
• • • Primate city Metropolis CBD PRIMATE CITIES A country’s largest city Jefferson’s criteria: Always disproportionately larger than the Always second largest urban center -- more than twice the size twice Expressive of the national culture Usually (but not always) the capital Examples: Paris, London, Athens Metropolitan London Metropolitan Fig. 1-9, p. 52 Metropolis Metropolis Urban agglomeration consisting of a (central) city and its suburban ring.
• CBDCentral Business District the downtown heart of a central city, the CBD is marked by high land values, a concentration of business and commerce, and the clustering of the tallest buildings. EUROPE’S CHANGING POPULATION EUROPE’S Falling share of the world’s population Fertility at an alltime low Fewer young people Smaller working age population Boom & bust agedependent Immigration partially offsetting losses Supranationalism Supranationalism
A venture involving three or more venture three states states Political, economic, and/or cultural Political, cooperation to promote shared objectives objectives New “Euro”Currency European Supranationalism European 1944 Benelux Agreement- intended to achieve total economic integration Netherlands Belgium Luxembourg Why would anyone want to give away international autonomy, one of the most sought after goals of the past century? after European Supranationalism European Fig. 1-10, p. 55 History of European Supranationlism Supranationlism 1947 – MARSHALL PLAN 1948 Organization for European Economic Cooperation (OEEC) 1949 Council of Europe 1951 ECSC 1957 Treaty of Rome 1958 EEC effective 1959 EFTAsigned 1965 EECESCEURATOM 1973 EEC History of European History of European Supranationlism Primary function of the OEEC To accept and distribute funds allocated under the Marshall Plan Developed by the U.S. to assist the rebuilding of European countries at the end of WW II European Union (EU) European Union (EU) Original Members: (12) Belgium, Denmark, France, Germany, Greece, Iceland, Italy, Luxembourg, Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, UK Established: 7 February 1992 Effective: 1 November 1993 Aimed to coordinate policy among the members in three fields: economics defense justice and home affairs European Union European Union Members 2002 Belgium Netherlands Luxembourg France Italy Germany Britain Ireland Denmark Greece Spain Portugal Austria Sweden Finland *10 new members approved. Supranationalism Supranationalism Problems Loss of autonomy Disparities in levels of economic Disparities development development Technical barriers Cultural barriers European Regions European Regions Western Europe The British Isles Nordic Europe Mediterranean Mediterranean Europe Europe Eastern Europe ...
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- European Union, Supranationalism Supranationalism, British Isles Nordic Europe Mediterranean Mediterranean Europe Europe Eastern Europe, European Supranationalism European, Supranationalism Supranationalism Problems