CHAPTER 10 - make duplicate copies of its chromosomes •...

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CHAPTER 10 – CHROMOSOMES, MITOSIS, AND MEIOSIS Chromosomes o Major carriers of genetic information in eukaryotes that lie within the cell Chromatin o A material consisting of DNA and associated proteins DNA is organized into informational units called genes Genome o May contain hundreds or thousands of genes Genes o Provide information needed to carry out one or more specific cell functions DNA is packaged in a highly organized way in chromosomes Histones o Proteins that facilitate in chromosome packaging Nucleosomes o Structures made up of histones and DNA Scaffolding proteins o Nonhistone proteins that help maintain chromosome structure Condensin o Proteins required for chromosome compaction Chromosome number and informational content differ among species THE CELL CYCLE AND MITOSIS Interphase o Time when no cell division is occurring G1 phase o No DNA synthesis occurs (gap phase) o Typically the longest phase Synthesis phase (S phase) o DNA replicates and histone proteins are synthesized so that the cell can
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Unformatted text preview: make duplicate copies of its chromosomes • G2 phase o Second gap phase • Mitosis o The nuclear division that produces two nuclei containing chromosomes identical to the parental nucleus During prophase, duplicated chromosomes become visible with the microscope • Prophase o When the long chromatin fibers begin a coiling process that makes them shorter and thicker • Sister chromatids o Contain identical, double-stranded DNA sequences • Centromere o Constricted region on a chromosome • Cohesin o A ring-shaped protein complex that physically links sister chromatids • Kinetochore o A multiprotein complex to which microtubules can bind • Mitotic spindle o A structure that separates the duplicated chromosomes during anaphase • Microtubule-organizing center o A region from which extend the microtubules that form the mitotic spindle...
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CHAPTER 10 - make duplicate copies of its chromosomes •...

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