Essay Specifics (China/India):
Your paper should have addressed the following (and you may have lost points for not supporting your
thesis with the relevant information):
the 5Rs (Five Relationships of Confucius) , and compare this with the Hindu caste system; you
also discuss the hierarchy of scholar gentry/artisans/mean people.
Within this context, you should address the concept/role of
the MoH (Mandate of Heaven) and the influence of Confucianism and the 5Rs on the Mandate of
the role that Hinduism, the caste system, belief in reincarnation and especially – the desire to
fulfill one’s dharma, all played in maintaining social order (and making rebellion unlikely) in
how did it reinforce and legitimize the role of the bureaucracy (the shi/scholar
And in turn, how was the predominance of Confucianism reinforced and legitimized by
the role of the shi?
how did it reinforce the role of the priests, even for non-Hindus, in the absence of a
strong, centralized political power
Han China and
India had strong, centralized, administrative governments. But usually
when we compare and contrast China and India – including Han China and
India – we see
China as primarily centralized, bureaucratic, and unified, while we see India as primarily
decentralized, with loose/regional political controls and an emphasis on diversity. Since the
question refers to both
India, you need to discuss
Although China emphasized a secular, political philosophy (Confucianism) as its dominant belief
system, and India emphasized a religion (Hinduism) as its dominant belief system, the social,
cultural, and political structures of both societies were deeply influenced by that dominant
In particular, the political structure of both societies was entirely predicated on, and
justified by, that dominant belief system. Very
both societies emphasized a very
rigid social hierarchy, which was rooted in that
dominant belief system
Both societies flourished with, and tolerated, a HUGE variety of coexistent philosophies AND
religions. These belief systems were generally seen as complimenting one another rather than
competing with one another.
The Han Synthesis focused on three of
such belief systems (Confucianism, Taoism,
and Legalism, with an emphasis on Confucianism, and Legalism was “softened).
most important thing for you to emphasize is the absolutely central role of Confucianism.