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Unformatted text preview: Hinduism Hinduism
The Eternal Religion The sacred “OM” Monotheism? Monotheism? Polytheism? Polytheism? Monotheism or Polytheism? Monotheism Henotheism: Hindus worship the Sacred/Ultimate Reality that is Hindus known as Brahman, which has many manifestations or faces. The many deities – gods and goddesses – in Hinduism are the various manifestations of Brahman Hinduism Among the Hindu deities, you see the concept of Among masculine/feminine duality all the male gods have their female complement and are sometimes referred to as one being/deity (example: SitaRam) to Sita-Ram Sita-Ram Rama Sita Brahman: the ultimate reality Atman: your soul, which is a reflection of Atman: Brahman Brahman Divinity and nature are one, and are perceived Divinity as coexisting in pantheistic/panentheistic eternity separation is an illusion Trimurti Trimurti Brahma – the Creator Vishnu – the Preserver Shiva – Shiva the Destroyer/Liberator the --> Shiva is also a Creator Brahma (Creator) Vishnu, the Preserver, is the most popular deity. He has many incarnations, including as Rama, Krishna, and Buddha. Shiva - Lord of the Dance Brahmawhat? Brahmawhat? Brahman – the ultimate reality Brahma – creator deity, a manifestation/face of Brahma the ultimate reality the brahmin – a member of the priest caste (sometimes spelled brahman or Brahman, but (sometimes don’t confuse with Brahman……………..) Brahman (that’s why it’s best to go (that’s with brahmin) brahmin) Brahman Brahman Brahma Brahma brahmin brahmin Some of the other major gods: Some Brahma/Vishnu/Shiva Ganesha – remover of obstacles Hanuman Avatars: Krishna, Rama Ganesha Hanuman Some of the major goddesses: Some Sarasvati (education/creativity) Lakshmi (wealth), wife of Vishnu Parvati (divine mother), wife of Shiva Durga (warrior goddess) Kali (divine protectress) Devi (the Mother Goddess) Lakshmi Parvati Ganesha Shiva Durga Kali Ma Avatars Avatars Human incarnations of the divine, which may Human include, but are not limited to: include, Krishna Rama Jesus Buddha Avatars Avatars Krishna, Rama, Jesus, and Buddha are all Krishna, considered to be incarnations of Vishnu (the Preserver) Preserver) Krishna Rama Hindu Jesus Hindu Buddha Sacred Texts & Scriptures Sacred include: The Vedas (4 books, written in Sanskrit) The Ramayana The Mahabharata includes the The Bhagavad Gita (Song of God) The Vedas The The Ramayana The The Mahabharata The 4 Stages of Life Stages Student Married Retired Renouncing There are different duties (dharma) for different There individuals, each according to his/her stage in life individuals, Student Student Married Married Ascetic Ascetic 4 Main Goals in Human Life: Main Dharma – fulfilling your purpose/duty Dharma fulfilling slightly different meanings between Buddhist dharma and Hindu dharma Buddhist Artha – pursuing wealth/prosperity Kama – pursuing pleasure Kama pursuing
--> don’t confuse kama with karma --> kama karma Moksha – release from the cycle of birth & rebirth rebirth Artha Artha Kama Kama Moksha Other basic beliefs/terms Other Karma Reincarnation Moksha Samsara Guru Ashram Yoga Puja Reincarnation Samsara Samsara Moksha Moksha Moksha is release, liberation (from samsara) Moksha is similar to the Buddhist concept of nirvana Moksha nirvana Moksha = Enlightenment Caste system (the Varnas) Caste The 4 main castes are very broad groupings; there are The actually over 3,000 human subcastes in India actually The caste system has been outlawed in India The caste system represented the belief that nature is The hierarchical. Members of various castes corresponded to parts of the body; if each part of the body was healthy and functioned properly, society would likewise be healthy and function properly. likewise The caste system The In its origins, it provided a way for India’s various races, the In conquerors, and the conquered, to live together without perpetual conflict and without full integration of cultures and values values Different kinds of people could live side by side in the same Different village or city, separated only by caste village In this roundabout way, the caste system promoted a level of In tolerance and may have prevented extensive outright slavery tolerance To be sure, the caste system reflects a spiritual emphasis To on/defense for social hierarchy & inequality on/defense Today, the caste system is illegal in India, although it continues Today, to shape many people’s lives (compare to racism in the US) to The caste system The A generic breakdown of the caste system (jatis) into 4 major into castes (varnas): castes Brahmins (priests) --> head Kshatriyas (warriors) --> hands Vaishyas (merchants/landowners) --> stomach Shudras (peasants/artisans) --> legs & feet Untouchables --> so unworthy, they aren’t even considered to Untouchables constitute a caste constitute Yoga Yoga
Yoga is related to the English words for union Yoga union and to join to The type of yoga with which most westerners The are familiar is hatha yoga, but exercise yoga is hatha but not necessarily the most prominent form of yogic practice among Hindu yogic practitioners practitioners Yoga Practices Bhaktic Yoga – devotional yoga, the most Bhaktic popular type popular Mantra Yoga Jnana Yoga – wisdom yoga Raj Yoga – meditation yoga Hatha Yoga Hatha yoga poses Hindu Denominations Hindu
There are thousands of Hindu sects, but many There Hindus are: Hindus Vaishnavas (devotees of Vishnu) these Vaishnavas include the Hare Krishnas include Shaivites (devotees of Shiva) Shaktas (devotees of Devi, the Mother Goddess) Shaktas (devotees The End ...
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This note was uploaded on 02/22/2011 for the course SS 1 taught by Professor 1 during the Spring '11 term at Anne Arundel CC.
- Spring '11